Diabetes mellitus is a common disease associated with a violation of carbohydrate metabolism and is accompanied by an increase in the blood glucose ratio.
According to the WHO (World Health Organization) definition, there is a division of diabetes into classes.
Classification of diabetes
According to the classification, should be distinguished:
- gestational in pregnant women.
According to MKB 10 (international classification of diseases), the modern classification is as follows:
- Type 1 - insulin-dependent, code E10 (the use of insulin is obligatory);
- 2 types - insulin-independent, code E11 (provokes excess weight and circulatory disorders);
- code E12 - caused by malnutrition (occurs on the background of starvation or dysfunction of the liver and kidneys);
- code E13 - mixed;
- code E14 - an indefinite type of pathology.
Why is diabetes dangerous? The fact that there is a difference in the symptoms of each class of the disease, and each type causes serious disturbances in the work of the internal systems of the body.
Insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus is a disease that is formed as a result of the cellular destruction of the pancreas, as a result of which an excessive amount of sugar is accumulated in the body. This pathology develops with a lack of insulin, necessary for proper carbohydrate metabolism.
The affected gland cannot cope with the production of a sufficient amount of the hormone. In this regard, the absorption of glucose into the cells is difficult and the indicator of sugar in the blood increases. The main way to compensate for the lack of hormone is the regular introduction into the body of insulin by injection.
Patients with this type of pathology have all their lives to comply with the schedule of insulin injections to maintain vitality. Therefore, this type of insulin is called.
This type of pathology is more often innate and is found in childhood or adolescence.
Video material on the mechanism of type 1 diabetes:
The main symptoms of the disease are as follows:
- frequent urination to urinate and discharge large amounts of urine;
- increased appetite;
- unquenchable thirst;
- feeling of dry mouth;
- itchy skin;
- unexplained weight loss;
- weakness, drowsiness.
According to the results of the blood test, an increased sugar coefficient is observed, fat cells are detected in the urine.
In the future, a strong pain syndrome in the abdomen joins the symptoms, which, in combination with nausea attacks, reduces appetite.
Under the influence of adverse factors, a significant increase in glucose is possible, which, without timely correction, leads to the appearance of hyperglycemia.
To provoke the growth of blood sugar can:
- nerve strain;
- infectious or inflammatory disease;
- violation of dietary nutrition;
- alcohol and smoking abuse;
- fasting or overeating;
- operative intervention;
- skipping the insulin injection or the wrong dosage.
Due to the unstable blood glucose, type 1 diabetes is dangerous for its complications:
- diabetic nephropathy and renal failure;
- damage to the nervous system (neuropathy);
- diseases of the heart and blood vessels;
- ketoacidosis is a complication caused by the breakdown of body fat cells, which leads to an increased formation of ketone bodies;
Ketoacidosis and hyperglycemia can cause the development of a comatose state and lead to death.
Type 1 diabetes is an incurable disease, and patients suffering from this pathology should regularly measure the amount of sugar in their blood, follow a strict diet and stick to insulin shots.
This disease is caused by insufficient activity of the hormone insulin, which is produced by the pancreas in abundance, but cannot effectively interact with cells and promote the breakdown of glucose.
What is the difference between the two types of diseases. Pathological changes in the metabolism of carbohydrates in type 1 are associated with disruption of the pancreas, and at 2 with loss of susceptibility of cellular insulin receptors.
When type 2 diabetes does not require constant compensation of the hormone, and it is called insulin-independent. This pathology develops in people over the course of a lifetime and usually appears as early as middle age.
The main factors affecting the occurrence of this type of disease include:
- genetic predisposition;
- abuse of foods high in fast carbohydrates and sugar;
- low physical activity;
- alcohol and nicotine addiction.
Symptomatology type 2 pathology is poorly expressed and often pathology is detected during the passage of a medical examination for another disease. Patients may notice a violation of visual function, increased appetite and the occurrence of itching.
Diagnosis of the disease is carried out according to the results of the study of a blood sample taken after an 8-hour fast. Pathology is confirmed when the indicators of sugar, exceeding the permissible rate.
Insulin-independent diabetes, like type 1 disease, is not treatable and is a lifelong disease. Maintenance therapy consists of following a strict dietary diet with a predominance of low-fat foods and vegetable dishes and the exclusion of fat, sweets and starch from the menu. Additional measures of treatment are the use of sugar-reducing and sensitivity-improving cellular receptors of drugs, as well as the introduction of moderate exercise.
A prerequisite for successful therapy is losing weight and avoiding bad habits. Patients are required to monitor their sugar levels and measure them several times a day.
Impaired hypothalamus function, as a result of which an insufficient amount of vasopressin is produced in the body is called diabetes insipidus. Vasopressin is a hormone responsible for the excretory function of the kidneys and urination.
There are two types of pathology:
- Nephrogenic- the most rare disease that occurs as a result of the low susceptibility of renal cells to the hormone of the hypothalamus. Pathology may occur due to kidney damage with medication or due to congenital anomalies.
- Hypothalamic vasopressin develops on the background of insufficient production and is divided into symptomatic - caused by brain damage by infections, injuries or tumors, and idiopathic - formed due to genetic susceptibility.
Thus, the reasons contributing to the development of diabetes insipidus include:
- neoplasms in the brain;
- head injuries;
- infectious inflammations of the meninges;
- circulatory disorders;
- kidney disease.
The main symptoms of the disease manifested in the form:
- incessant thirst;
- high volume of urine (water consumed more than 20 liters per day) (more than 25 liters per day);
- migraine and fatigue;
- emotional instability;
- weight loss and poor appetite;
- failure of the monthly cycle;
- erectile disfunction.
Due to excess fluid entering the body, stretching of the stomach occurs and its displacement, affects the intestines and bile ducts. Changes occur in the urinary system, which is reflected in the stretching of the ureters, renal pelvis and bladder.
Disease therapy is as follows:
- diet food, with the restriction of protein foods;
- treatment of diseases that trigger impaired hormone production;
- replenishment of fluid and electrolyte loss in the body by intravenous infusion of saline solutions;
- replenishment of vasopressin deficiency by instillation of desmopressin (hormone replacement) into the nose.
With appropriate treatment, diabetes insipidus does not affect the life expectancy of patients.
Pre-diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance
The state of prediabetes is characterized by a slight increase in blood glucose ratio, but at the same time exceeding the permissible values. The danger of this type of pathology lies in the possible risk of heart and vascular diseases, as well as diabetes. The threatening condition requires finding out the cause of the failure of the carbohydrate metabolism process and carrying out appropriate treatment.
Factors that can lead to this condition can be:
- elderly age;
- endocrine diseases;
- liver, kidney, cardiovascular and immune system pathologies;
- period of carrying a child;
- abuse of foods high in sugar;
- hormonal therapy;
- nerve strain;
- high cholesterol.
Pathology has little pronounced symptoms that most often go unnoticed:
- lethargic condition;
- susceptibility to viral and colds.
A blood glucose test is being performed to diagnose the disease. An alarming indicator will be the level above 6.3 mmol / l.
Pregnant women, people who have relatives with diabetes, as well as people who are prone to an increase in blood sugar, take a test for glucose tolerance. Indicators of the first study above 6.9 mmol / l, and the second - no more than 11.2 mmol / l indicate a tendency to the development of pathology.
These people need to repeat blood tests every three months. For prophylaxis, testing is necessary every six months.
After diagnosing the disease, patients are advised to avoid physical and nervous fatigue, increase physical activity, adhere to a dietary diet, and give up alcohol and nicotine addiction.
Compliance with preventive measures will prevent the progression of carbohydrate metabolism and prevent diabetes from developing.
Gestational form during pregnancy
The accumulation of glucose in the blood occurs in pregnant women as a result of the restructuring of the hormonal background and a decrease in physical activity. Such a pathology may disappear on its own after the birth of a child or later lead to the development of diabetes.
Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels is mandatory throughout the entire period of gestation. The gestational form of the disease can adversely affect pregnancy, the health of the fetus and the expectant mother.
High sugar levels cause hypertension in a pregnant woman, leading to the appearance of marked edema, which, in turn, contributes to the development of hypoxia in the fetus.
Uncorrected pathology increases the flow of sugar into the blood of the fetus, where it promotes the formation of fat cells. As a result, the child increases body weight and the size of the head and shoulders. In pregnant women with gestational form, a large fetus is often born, reaching more than 4 kg of weight, which complicates the process of childbirth and leads to injuries of the birth canal.
The failure of carbohydrate metabolism is more often observed in this category of persons:
- pregnant women with a hereditary predisposition;
- fat women;
- pregnant women with diabetes in history;
- women with polycystic ovaries;
- women who have glucose in their urine;
- patients who abuse bad habits and lead an inactive lifestyle;
- pregnant women with high blood pressure and diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- women who have had multiple pregnancies in the past have had large children or a fetus with developmental abnormalities.
Video material on gestational diabetes:
Gestational therapy should be based on the recommendations of the doctor, regular monitoring of sugar, a reasonable increase in physical activity and dietary compliance. In the future, such women should undergo a medical examination every six months to prevent the onset of diabetes.