With age, the human body does not regenerate as actively as in his youth. Therefore, in mature and elderly people, diseases of almost all organs and systems develop.
Blood vessels are most susceptible to age-related changes, and because of their localization throughout the body, all tissues - connective, muscular, bone and especially nervous - suffer.
Diseases that affect the blood vessels of the circulatory system include atherosclerosis. This is a pathology of the vascular system, in which deposits of cholesterol and low and very low density lipoproteins form on the vessel wall.
The appearance of pathology is preceded by a rise in the level of cholesterol in the blood plasma for a long time.
The disease proceeds in three stages:
- The first stage is characterized by lipid saturation. At the same time, microdamages of the intima of the vascular wall and a decrease in blood flow velocity play a crucial role. In 70% of cases, this is found in the place of bifurcation, that is, branching, for example in the lower part of the aorta. At this stage, the lipids react to the enzymes of the affected intima and attach to it, gradually accumulating;
- The second stage of atherosclerosis is called lipid sclerosis. This period is marked by the slow hardening of atherosclerotic masses, which is caused by the growth of connective tissue strands through it. This stage is intermediate, that is, regression can be observed. However, there is a grave danger of embolization - tearing off parts of the clot, which can clog the vessel and cause ischemia and tissue death;
- Atherocalcinosis completes the development of the disease. Calcium salts come along with blood flow and settle on the plaque, contributing to its hardening and cracking. Gradually, the substance grows, its volume increases, the free flow of fluid is disturbed, and chronic ischemia develops, which leads to gangrene and loss of limbs.
Among scientists, it is widely believed that infectious diseases can induce the development of atherosclerosis. Research is currently underway on this issue.
The basic principles of the treatment of hypercholesterinemia are:
- reducing cholesterol intake in the body and suppressing its endogenous synthesis;
- acceleration of its excretion by converting to fatty acids and through the intestines;
In addition, it is necessary to treat associated diseases - diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, vascular dementia.
Instructions for use of drugs
Given the fact that atherosclerosis is a deadly disease, it is a responsibility to approach treatment. The gold standard of treatment are statins.
The mechanism of their action is the same for the whole group and consists in the blockade of the HMG-CoA reductase enzymes, which synthesize cholesterol in the liver.
When drugs are used regularly, the ratio of lipid fractions, including suppression of cholesterol, low-density components, triglycerides, and alipoprotein B, is adjusted in patients. These drugs minimize the risk of fatal complications such as embolism, acute myocardial infarction, gangrene of the extremities, ischemic stroke and exertional angina pectoris.
Atorvastatin and other statins are intended for oral administration. They are taken only on prescription by a physician who, prior to prescription, will carefully study the lipid profile, advise correction of lifestyle and nutrition, because overweight worsens the effect of the drug on cholesterol.
The dose is often selected for maximum patient comfort and is in a single pill that is taken at any time of the day, regardless of meals. It is necessary to pass tests for control once a month, because in the absence of a therapeutic effect, the dose is adjusted.
In severe hereditary cases, the amount is increased to four tablets per day. In elderly patients, the prescribed minimum dose is not adjusted due to the risk of renal failure. Children dose should not exceed twenty milligrams per day. Patients with liver disease drug is contraindicated.
Possible development of adverse reactions, such as:
- Headache, sleep disturbances.
- Muscle pain, cramps.
- Nausea, vomiting, bitterness in the mouth, flatulence, diarrhea or constipation.
- Pruritus, urticaria.
When entering the stomach, the tablet quickly dissolves, entering the blood through the mucous membrane and rushing to the site of the defect. Bioavailability is 12%, excreted with the help of the liver, the half-life is about 15 hours.
Patients often get confused when buying a drug, because drug prices vary widely, there are many producing countries, an abundance of trade names, and there is active advertising on the Internet and on television.
All this raises questions, what is the difference between this abundance of drugs.
How to choose the right drug?
In pharmacy chains, you can find two types of drugs. The first is the originals, the first development of pharmaceutical plants, which has a patent for twenty years.
This means that for almost a quarter of a century, only this company can produce this medicine. While the term of the patent has not expired, analog drugs on the shelves can not appear. But at the end of this time, the defense is canceled and copies appear. At the same time, the original is still much more expensive.
The reason for this is easily explained - for the manufacture of a unique product, scientists have spent billions of dollars, conducting long-term clinical studies and confirming the effectiveness and safety of a large number of voluntary subjects. The process takes more than ten years.
Generics (or generics), which constitute the second group, are inherently clone drugs with similar characteristics.
For their manufacture, it is necessary to take a ready-made formula, add excipients to the original composition, come up with an easy-to-remember name and launch it.
The production technology is not always the same as that of the first drug, so deviations in the effects on humans occur frequently.
The price depends on many factors: the method of manufacture, the addition of additional compounds, the number of clinical trials that it underwent. Research can be divided into:
- Bioequivalent, that is, checking for matches with the recipe;
- Pharmaceutical - confirming the correct mechanism of action;
- And therapeutic, studying the effects of generics on humans.
The price is directly proportional to the number of studies - that is, the more of them, the more expensive the product.
In the group of lipid-lowering drugs, atorvastatin is original. During the clinical trials that lasted for twelve months, he showed the following results:
- The concentration of low-density lipoprotein decreased by 55%;
- Total cholesterol figures fell by 46%;
- The level of high-density lipoproteins has increased (this is “good” cholesterol, it does not clog up blood vessels) by 4%.
The dose taken by volunteers was 10 milligrams per day.
When comparing generic drugs with it, it was found that other statins need a higher concentration to achieve the effect - for Torvakard it is 20 milligrams, for Simvastatin - 40, and for Fluvastatin as much as 80.
This data is not in favor of copies, causing the main difference.
The choice between generic and original
The drug Torvakard is one of the main competitors of Atorvastatin.
Its price is exactly half that attracts more people, because the savings are 50%. It is well advertised, there are positive reviews about it, so people take it willingly.
The drug is very different in composition, if in the first recipe there is only the original substance atorvastatin and the auxiliary in the form of lactose, then there are more auxiliary compounds in Torvakard.
The preparation includes:
- Atorvastatin calcium salt, 10 milligram - the active substance;
- Sodium croscarmellose is a disintegrating agent that provides disintegration of the tablet in the stomach;
- Magnesium Oxide prevents clumping;
- Lactose monohydrate - filler for the acquisition of sufficient mass;
- Monocrystalline glucose is the flavor and smell of flavor;
- Magnesium stearate is an anti-sticking agent to simplify manufacture and packaging.
The composition of the shell of the tablet includes:
- titanium dioxide is a mineral dye in the form of fine powder;
- Talc is a glidant that reduces roughness by adsorption on the surface of the granules.
As can be seen from the above, the drug Torvakard has a lot of ballast substances that increase the weight and its physical properties. Allergy sufferers may develop intolerance or an attack of an allergic reaction to many of these components, ranging from pruritus, ending with angioedema, so they are not recommended to use the drug. Or, take a test with allergen tests on these compounds to ensure that the medication is safe for health.
People with lactose intolerance are prohibited from taking all types of statins.
So how is Atorvastatin different from Torvacard?
As can be seen from clinical studies, analysis of molecular composition and allergic hazards, Torvakard is significantly inferior to Atorvastatin. This is not surprising, because the technology of production of generics is different from the original, so the therapeutic effect is much lower, and the required dosage is higher. Its main advantage is the price, but it is worth remembering that the miser pays twice, and you shouldn’t save on your health.
Should I take the statins will tell the experts in the video in this article.