What is atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels of the heart?

Many patients carefully study their diagnoses in extracts and other medical documents. Often diabetics suffering from cardiac diseases are surprised when, in addition to arterial hypertension and angina, they see the diagnosis of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.

Angina is understandable, the disease is accompanied by painful sensations in the chest; arterial hypertension - increases blood pressure. But what is coronary sclerosis, and what are the consequences of this diagnosis?

Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease, due to the flow of which cholesterol plaques are deposited on the walls of blood vessels. Fat deposits disrupt the normal circulation of blood, lead to blockage of blood vessels, which threatens myocardial infarction, death from coronary heart disease.

Consider the etiology of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the heart, how is the disease manifested? What is treatment and prevention?

Stages and classification of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries

Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries appears to be a fairly common disease on the background of diabetes. This pathology is characterized by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of the coronary vessels - they supply the heart with blood. Lack of treatment can lead to serious health problems and death.

Most often, the disease is diagnosed in patients over 45 years of age. But recently, medical specialists have noted a tendency towards rejuvenation - many men and women face such a diagnosis for up to thirty years.

The development of atherosclerosis is due to the accumulation of fatty deposits inside the vessels. Plaques consist of a fat-like substance, in particular, low-density lipoproteins and a very low degree of density. The plaques slowly increase in size until they begin to bulge into the lumen of the coronary arteries. This disrupts the full circulation of blood up to a complete stop of blood flow.

Stenosis of the coronary arteries leads to myocardial hypoxia, a violation of the functionality of the heart muscle in a diabetic, ischemic heart disease - coronary heart disease. Stages of atherosclerosis of the heart arteries:

  1. At the first stage, the blood flow slows down slightly, microcracks appear on the endothelium of blood vessels. These transformations lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques on the intima of the arteries - a stain of fat develops. Then the weakening of the barrier functions of the body leads to an increase in vascular proliferation, the plaque begins to increase in size, turning into a lipid strip;
  2. In the second stage, the plaques grow. At this stage of the development of the disease, the formation of blood clots is not excluded, which can break off and completely or partially block the lumen;
  3. At the last stage, cholesterol deposits are compacted, because calcium salts are still being deposited. There is stenosis of the arteries, their deformation.

Depending on the degree of stenosis, atherosclerosis is classified into non-stenotic (narrowing less than 50%) and stenosing (narrowing by 50% or more, the characteristic signs of the disease are already present).

In principle, such a classification has no clinical importance, since diabetics seek medical help when pronounced symptoms of IHD are already detected.

Causes of coronary sclerosis

Atherosclerosis of the heart vessels develops due to the negative impact of external and internal factors. Medical professionals voiced more than 200 factors that can become a "push" for the development of a chronic disease.

One of the most common causes is an increase in low-density lipoprotein diabetes. The situation is aggravated if the diabetic has a history of hypertension - a persistent increase in blood pressure.

The provoking factor is low motor activity. Hypodynamy provokes a violation of metabolic and metabolic processes, the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins in the body is upset.

Etiology of atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels of the heart:

  • Smoking. This dangerous habit leads to increased production of nitric oxide, which disrupts blood circulation, the destruction of the coronary vessels;
  • Improper diet, in particular, the consumption of large quantities of products that are abundant in fats of animal origin;
  • Genetic predisposition;
  • Age-related changes in the body. Most often, atherosclerosis is diagnosed in patients over the age of 45;
  • Obesity. Diabetics of the second type suffer from excess weight, which increases the risk of coronary sclerosis by 3 times;
  • Alcohol Abuse. Ethanol disrupts the bloodstream, acts as a factor in the accumulation of low-density lipoprotein in the vessels.

According to medical statistics, atherosclerosis of coronary arteries is rarely diagnosed in women of reproductive age. This is due to the production of estrogen - the female hormones that protect the blood vessels.

But during menopause, the risk increases, which is associated with hormonal disturbances.

Clinical manifestations of arterial stenosis

In the early stages of the pathological process, there are no signs of the disease. To diagnose the disease is almost impossible. As it progresses slowly, symptoms develop when complications are already present.

That is why medical specialists recommend diabetics to undergo annual examinations to identify the disease at an early stage. The first symptoms can be attributed to pain in the chest - pain gives back or left shoulder. Against the background of pain occurs shortness of breath.

Often diabetics complain of nausea, vomiting, dizziness. In most of the paintings, these symptoms are attributed to diabetes, which delays treatment for an indefinite period. With the progression of the disease the following clinical manifestations develop:

  1. Angina pectoris is a condition accompanied by episodic chest pains that develop as a result of physical activity or emotional stress.
  2. Cardiosclerosis - acute ischemia of the heart muscle, leading to the formation of areas of fibrosis throughout the myocardium. Pathology violates the contractile function of the heart.
  3. Arrhythmia is manifested due to damage to the heart muscle, a decrease in the conductivity of impulses is observed.

When an atherosclerotic plaque ruptures in the coronary artery, a diabetic heart attack develops. Most often this condition occurs from 4.00 to 10.00 in the morning, when the adrenaline concentration in the circulatory system increases.

In 50% of cases, the above signs appear, which are harbingers of seizures.

Conservative and surgical treatment

Drug treatment should be designed so that therapy works in several directions at once. First of all, it is necessary to influence the pathological itself - the atherosclerotic process in the body, as well as to level the clinic of the disease, to prevent the progression of coronary heart disease.

The tactics of therapy is determined by the stage of the disease. In the early stages, diabetics are recommended to change their lifestyle. It is necessary to completely abandon the dangerous habits - alcohol consumption, smoking. It is important to normalize the diet, to follow a diet - reduce the consumption of fats of animal origin, refuse fatty / fried / spicy food.

To normalize metabolic and metabolic processes, cardiologists prescribe optimal physical activity. The sport is selected taking into account the history, age, well-being of the patient. With obesity, you need to lose weight.

For the treatment of atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries can prescribe drugs:

  • Drugs, the pharmacological effect of which is focused on reducing myocardial oxygen demand, which allows to level the negative symptoms of coronary artery disease. Calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, antiplatelet agents are prescribed;
  • Medications that inhibit the development of atherosclerosis. Apply tablets belonging to the group of statins. They reduce the concentration of LDL cholesterol, prevent the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in diabetes mellitus.

Atherosclerosis therapy involves the elimination of factors leading to the development of a chronic disease. For example, in case of diabetes, it is required to achieve stable compensation of the disease, to maintain an optimal level of glucose in the body.

In advanced cases, when drug treatment does not give the desired therapeutic effect, surgical intervention is resorted:

  1. Coronary artery bypass surgery. During the operation, the doctor creates bypass routes of the blood flow, bypassing the damaged area.
  2. Balloon angioplasty. A special catheter is inserted inside the femoral artery, after it is advanced to the desired location. Next, inflate the balloon, which contributes to the expansion of the coronary artery.
  3. Coronary stenting. Medical manipulation involves the introduction of a stent having a rigid framework into the affected artery.

You can supplement the treatment with homeopathic preparations. Homeopathy offers a wide range of products that contribute to the dissolution of cholesterol plaques. The most effective drugs for atherosclerosis include Holvacor, Cholesterolium, Pulsatilla.

Homeopathic therapy is carried out under the control of a homeopath, who will be able to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, and, if necessary, adjust the therapeutic scheme.

Possible complications and prevention

Atherosclerosis of the coronary vessels provokes the destruction of the heart muscle. Clinically, it is manifested by a heart attack, angina pectoris, or a heart rhythm disorder. Symptoms of heart failure are detected sporadically.

If cholesterol plaques hit several vessels at the same time, this increases the risk of death in diabetes mellitus. There is also a high probability of death due to plaque rupture. Most often it occurs in the cold season in the morning. Provocateur - the strongest stress or excessive exercise.

When a blood clot forms, which clogs the coronary artery, the risk of death is high. Statistics notes that in 60% of cases the patient does not have time to deliver to the hospital - he dies. With partial lesions, angina pectoris occurs. Often myocardial infarction develops; Its symptoms are as follows:

  • A sharp pain in the chest - radiating to the back;
  • Lowering blood pressure;
  • Impairment of consciousness;
  • Dyspnea.

With these symptoms, immediate medical attention is required. Another complication is cardiosclerosis. Pathology is characterized by the replacement of normal cells with scar tissue. This tissue does not participate in the contraction of the heart, which leads to an increased load on the myocardium.

Prevention of diabetes:

  1. Daily monitoring of blood sugar, blood pressure, harmful cholesterol.
  2. Normalization of body weight through nutrition and sports.
  3. Balanced diet based on cholesterol content in foods, glycemic index.
  4. Strict compliance with all recommendations of the doctor.
  5. Moderate exercise (swimming, walking, jogging, aerobics).
  6. Timely treatment of infectious diseases.
  7. Preventive examinations.

Mortality from coronary heart disease in diabetes is quite high - in fact, it is the main cause of death in people over 50 years of age. The quality of life in this situation completely depends on the will of the patient: on his desire to live a long and healthy life.

Hypertension and atherosclerosis are discussed in the video in this article.

Watch the video: Coronary heart disease, clogged arteries and atherosclerosis (April 2020).