Hypofunction and hyperfunction of the pancreas are closely associated with the occurrence and progression of pathologies in the tissues of the organ.
Hypofunction most often develops, but in some situations the activity of the cells of the body is enhanced. This situation leads to the fact that the patient revealed hyperfunction of the pancreas. Such a violation occurs very rarely and, as a rule, accompanies the progression of serious diseases in the body.
Basically, the hyperfunction of the organ is manifested in the increased content of insulin in the blood.
Causes of increased functional activity of cells
The reasons provoking an increase in the activity of the cells of the glandular pancreatic tissue may not always be associated with disorders in the organ.
The increase in glandular tissue activity may be due to incorrect or inadequate treatment of diabetes mellitus, when more insulin is injected into the internal environment of the body than is required by the adjustment procedure.
This situation arises when the dosage of drugs is incorrectly calculated or after the administration of medicines on an empty stomach.
In addition, the cause of increased secretory activity may be the development of insulomas.
Insuloma is a tumor-like formation that develops from the islet of Langerhans. Such a neoplasm in pancreatic tissues leads to increased insulin production. Such a tumor is benign and does not form metastases, but the resulting hyperfunction of the pancreas leads to the development of severe complications in the body that can cause significant harm to the body in the absence of adequate therapy.
The formation of certain types of tumors in the brain also leads to an increase in the secretory activity of cells.
Symptoms characteristic of the pathological condition of the gland
What symptoms appear with an increase in secretory activity, and what develops with pancreatic hypofunction?
The appearance of characteristic symptoms with increased activity of pancreatic cells is associated with the occurrence and progression of hypoglycemia in the patient's body.
Hypoglycemia is the main manifestation of secretory hyperactivity of organ tissue.
Symptoms characteristic of this pathological condition at the time of exacerbation of the violation are the following symptoms:
- In the morning, the patient is difficult to navigate, very often at such moments he repeats the same movements and words, and can also respond inappropriately to the questions posed.
- Psychomotor agitation manifests itself, the patient often does not find a place for himself, this often makes others think that a person is drunk.
- A patient may have seizures that are similar in appearance to epileptic, but lasting much longer.
- In humans, there is an increase in sweating, there are sharp jumps in blood pressure, and the rhythm of heart contractions may be disturbed.
- The progression of hypoglycemia leads to impaired consciousness, up to the confluence of the person in the hypoglycemic coma.
Between the periods of exacerbation in humans revealed symptoms of chronic hypoglycemia
- damage to the nuclei of the facial and endopharyngeal nerve, and as a result, injuries provoke paralysis of the facial muscles;
- disorders of tendon reflexes and the occurrence of patreflexes;
- there is a decrease in memory and mental performance.
Symptoms of reducing secretory activity depends on the individual characteristics of the patient.
The basic signs of such a violation are:
- Sensation of dryness in the mouth.
- Increased urination.
- Rapid loss of body weight.
- Nausea and urge to vomit.
- The appearance of localized pain in the abdomen.
- The appearance of confusion.
- The appearance of fatigue and a general breakdown.
These signs may be harbingers of the onset and progression of a patient with diabetic coma.
Disturbance of secretory activity occurs in pancreatic tissues most often as a result of pancreatitis.
Violations of intrasecretory activity are most often accompanied by impaired exocrine activity of the glandular tissue, which is accompanied by disorders in the functioning of the digestive tract.
Methods for diagnosing hypersecretory activity
To detect the presence of increased secretion, various methods of diagnosing pathology are used. First of all, an analysis of the patient's complaints and the history of the disease is carried out.
After receiving the primary information, the attending physician prescribes specialized diagnostic measures. Both laboratory and instrumental research methods are used for the examination.
As laboratory methods are used:
- determination of the amount of glucose in the body on an empty stomach;
- determining the amount of insulin in the blood plasma; for this purpose, one of the most informative methods is used - radioimmunological;
- blood test for sugar with a load;
- determination of blood content of proinsulin and C-peptide;
- carrying out functional tests with fasting.
As instrumental methods for the diagnosis of increasing the activity of pancreatic cells are used:
- Computed tomography.
- Catheterization of the portal vein to detect immunoreactive insulin.
After conducting all the required studies and confirming the diagnosis, the attending physician is prescribed a course of treatment aimed at normalizing the work of the pancreas.
The choice of treatment method depends on the degree of development of the pathological process and its nature.
Therapy of the state of hyperfunction of the gland in the acute period consists in administering glucose solution intravenously into the body.
Treatment in case of detection of the presence of insulinoma in the tissues of the gland involves surgery. Surgery removes the tumor. In case of detection of the malignant nature of the tumor focus, it is removed with a portion of the gland tissue.
If surgical intervention cannot be carried out for objective reasons, then the patient is prescribed a drug course of therapy consisting of drugs that suppress the synthesis of the hormone insulin.
In identifying the disease for patients, the observance of a special diet is of particular importance. Such a diet involves the consumption of foods rich in carbohydrates.
The observance of dietary nutrition implies the refusal to eat fatty and spicy foods, in addition to this, the patient should abandon the use in the ration of baked goods.
In the case of increased secretory activity of pancreatic tissues, the level of sugar and insulin in the blood should be monitored, and in the case of reducing the amount of carbohydrates, it is required to increase their content by consuming products containing a large amount of this component.
The consumption of such food allows you to increase the sugar content in the blood and lower the level of insulin.
The functions of the pancreas are described in the video in this article.