According to clinical studies, the glucose indicators in a woman during the child's pregnancy in most cases go beyond the allowable limits. A similar condition is associated with hormonal changes that are characteristic of this time. What is the norm of sugar in the blood of pregnant women, how to check it and what is necessary for the correction of the indicators, discussed below.
The rate of blood sugar during pregnancy does not fit into the generally accepted standards. Recommended indicators (in mmol / l):
- until food enters the body - no higher than 4.9;
- 60 minutes after meals - no higher than 6.9;
- 120 minutes after a meal - no higher than 6.2.
Normal sugar in the development of gestational diabetes (in mmol / l):
- fasting - no higher than 5.3;
- 60 minutes after a meal - no higher than 7.7;
- 120 minutes after a meal - no higher than 6.7.
The level of glycated hemoglobin (average glucose in the last quarter) should not exceed 6.5%.
Glycemia can vary in both directions. With lower rates of talk about hypoglycemia. This is dangerous not only for the mother, but also for the child who does not receive the necessary amount of energy resources.
Glucose - a substance necessary for providing the body with energy
High numbers indicate hyperglycemia. It may be associated with diabetes, which began before the conception of a baby, or with gestational diabetes. The second form is typical for pregnant women. As a rule, after the baby is born, the glucose values return to acceptable limits.
Why is sugar crawling up?
Glycemia increases during pregnancy due to the loss of the body's ability to synthesize the required amount of insulin (pancreatic hormone). This hormone-active substance is necessary for proper distribution of sugar, its entry into cells and tissues. Without a sufficient amount of insulin, glucose figures in the body grow.
In addition, hyperglycemia is caused by placental hormones, which are characteristic of the gestation period. The main antagonist of insulin is considered to be placental somatomammotropin. This hormone is similar to growth hormone, takes an active part in the metabolism of the mother, promotes the synthesis of protein substances. Somatomammotropin helps your baby get enough glucose.
Most often, the level of glycemia rises against the background of the following contributing factors:
- gestational diabetes during first pregnancies;
- miscarriage in history;
- birth of babies with macrosomia (weight more than 4 kg);
- abnormal body weight;
- genetic predisposition;
- the presence of preeclampsia (the appearance of protein in the urine) in the past;
- high water flow;
- age of women older than 30 years.
Endocrinologist - a specialist who will help keep blood glucose levels within the allowed limits
Why do you need to keep glucose normal?
Normal blood sugar levels should be maintained throughout the entire period of childbearing, because it is necessary to prevent the risk of spontaneous abortion, to reduce the likelihood of premature delivery, as well as to prevent the appearance of congenital anomalies and defects in the baby.
Glucose control will help maintain the height and weight of the baby within acceptable limits, prevent the appearance of macrosomia, and also protect the mother from various complications in the second half of pregnancy.
If a woman suffers from hyperglycemia, the baby can be born with a high rate of insulin hormone in the body. This occurs in the form of a compensatory reaction on the part of the children's pancreas. In the process of growing up, a tendency to hypoglycemic states is possible.
More information about the rate of blood sugar in children can be found in this article.
Gestational diabetes and its manifestations
At first, the disease is asymptomatic, and the woman perceives minor changes as physiological processes, linking them with her “interesting” position.
Pathology develops after the 20th week of pregnancy. This is due to the maximum activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary system and the production of adrenal hormones. They are also considered antagonists of the hormonally active substance of the pancreas.
With a bright clinical picture, patients complain of the following manifestations:
- constant desire to drink;
- increased appetite;
- pathologically increased amount of urine excreted;
- excessive weight gain;
- blurred vision;
- significant fatigue.
The effect of hyperglycemia on the baby
Gestational diabetes does not cause developmental defects in the fetus, as is typical for type 1 diabetes, since the formation of organs and systems occurs in the first trimester, and the onset of the gestational form of the pathology from the 20th to the 24th week.
The lack of correction of glucose indicators may lead to the occurrence of diabetic fetopathy. The disease is manifested by a malfunction of the pancreas, kidneys and blood vessels in the baby. Such a child is born with a large body weight (up to 6 kg), his skin has a red-burgundy shade, there are visible punctate hemorrhages.
Children with macrosomia are markedly different from healthy babies.
The skin is richly flavored with white grease, edematous. On examination, a large size of the abdomen, relatively short limbs, is clearly visible. A baby may have respiratory distress due to a deficiency of surfactant (the substance responsible for ensuring that the alveoli in the lungs do not stick together).
Such complications can be prevented by correcting the indicators of glycemia in the mother's body with diet therapy and medical drugs (usually insulin).
Glycemia control methods during pregnancy
Standard tests include capillary blood tests, biochemistry and determination of glucose tolerance.
Finger blood takes place according to generally accepted rules. A woman takes it in the morning before food enters the body. You can not brush your teeth with paste, because it can have sugar in the composition, and use chewing gum. The rate of blood sugar in pregnant women is indicated above.
Glucose tolerance test is carried out in cases where the performance of previous tests are outside the acceptable range. Recently, however, it was decided to assign this method of diagnosis to all pregnant women upon reaching the 24th - 25th weeks.
The test does not require special training. For 48 hours before the material is collected, a woman should behave in a natural way, no need to reduce the amount of carbohydrates in the diet. In the morning you need to give up breakfast, tea, you can drink only water.
In the laboratory, blood or veins are taken. Next, the pregnant woman drinks a special sweet solution based on glucose powder. After 2 hours, additional blood is taken in the same way as for the first time. In the waiting period, the subject should not eat or drink anything other than water. Deciphering the results in the table.
Decoding the results of PGTT in healthy pregnant women and against the background of gestational diabetes
Another important study is urinalysis for the determination of glycosuria. It is not necessary to collect the first urine in the morning, it is poured. Subsequent urination processes should be accompanied by collecting the analysis in one large capacity, which is stored in a cool place. The next morning, you need to shake the container and pour about 200 ml of urine into a separate container. Deliver to the laboratory within 2 hours.
There are cases of false-positive results when a woman is not ill, but for some reason, her blood glucose rates are out of range, as indicated in the test results. This may be due to the following conditions:
- stressful situations - women in the period of pregnancy are the most emotional and subject to such influence;
- recent infectious diseases;
- violations of the rules of testing - a pregnant woman can eat something or drink tea before taking the material, considering that "it hardly hurts".
Correction of sugar
What diet should be followed, how much weight is allowed to gain, how to independently control the glycemic level - with such questions a pregnant woman can contact her obstetrician or an endocrinologist.
Diet therapy - the stage of glycemic correction
General recommendations boil down to the following points:
- eat often, but in small portions;
- give up fried, salted, smoked;
- food to steam, simmer, bake;
- include a sufficient amount of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits, cereals (as recommended by the doctor);
- by appointment - insulin therapy;
- adequate physical activity, which increases the sensitivity of the body's cells to insulin.
Continuous glycemic control and adherence to expert advice will keep sugar within acceptable limits and minimize the risk of complications from the mother and fetus.