During pregnancy, women often have or worsen chronic forms of the disease. In the period when the baby is being born, the expectant mother often has a weakened immunity, against the background of which various pathologies appear. One of these diseases is gestational diabetes. The sugar curve during pregnancy, or the glucose tolerance test (GTT), will help determine the level of glucose before and after exercise.
The need for testing
The doctor always assigns various examinations to pregnant women, since the processes occurring in their bodies affect not only their health, but also the condition of the unborn child. Patients should know what tests they should take to avoid problems.
Some women do not know why during pregnancy a sugar curve should be tested. Glucose tolerance test is usually done at the end of the second trimester in conjunction with other examinations. Over the past few years, the risk of gestational diabetes has increased. It is now found in pregnant women as often as late toxicosis. If you do not promptly seek treatment from a specialist, then there may be negative consequences for the expectant mother and the fetus itself.
Carbohydrate metabolism is an important link in homeostasis. It is strongly influenced by hormonal changes in the body of a woman during pregnancy. The sensitivity of tissues to insulin first increases and then decreases. Because glucose provides for the needs of the fetus, mother’s cells often lack energy. Normally, insulin should be produced in greater quantities than before conceiving a child.
The doctor may prescribe blood donation for the following disorders:
- deviations in urine analysis;
- high blood pressure;
- obesity or rapid weight gain;
- lying lifestyle, limited physical activity;
- multiple births;
- overweight child;
- genetic predisposition to diabetes;
- polycystic ovaries;
- severe toxicosis;
- neuropathy of unknown origin;
- history of abortion;
- the development of gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy;
- chronic infectious diseases;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- diseases of the stomach or intestines;
- postpartum or postoperative condition.
To get a reliable result, testing is carried out several times. The number of procedures prescribed by a gynecologist-endocrinologist.
Dates and restrictions
The sugar curve test can be passed only in the absence of contraindications to it. Women whose glucose concentration tested on an empty stomach exceeds 7 mmol / l should not be tested. The procedure is contraindicated in patients under the age of 14 years.
Testing can not be carried out in the presence of inflammatory processes in the body. Exacerbation of pancreatitis, toxicosis and malignant tumors also serve as contraindications to the analysis. GTT is forbidden to do if the patient takes certain pharmacological agents. Funds that promote the growth of glycemia, can affect the performance of the sugar curve during pregnancy.
How long to take the test for GTT, the doctor will tell. The best period for this is a pregnancy in the 24–28 week. If a woman previously had diabetes mellitus in a gestational form while carrying a baby, then the analysis is recommended at 16–18 weeks. In later periods, testing is not recommended, but in exceptional cases it is possible from 28 to 32 weeks.
Preparation for analysis
Prior to the sugar curve test, preliminary preparation is necessary. Any factor that affects glycemia affects the result of the analysis, which may be unreliable.
To avoid errors, a pregnant woman should fulfill several conditions:
- For three days you need to maintain your usual diet with carbohydrate content.
- You must also follow a diet, eliminating fatty and fried foods.
- No need to reduce the rhythm of daily physical exertion, which should be in moderation.
- Before the analysis is prohibited to take drugs. The use of some tools can be continued, but only after consultation with a specialist. Also canceled therapeutic procedures.
- From sugary drinks must be abandoned.
The test is performed on an empty stomach. The last time a patient has to eat is 10–14 hours before the start of the treatment. She should avoid stressful situations and emotional over-excitement.
The reasons for the decrease or increase of the indicator
The primary task for the expectant mother is to obtain reliable test results, which determine the correct course of pregnancy and the development of the baby in the womb. If possible diseases are detected in a timely manner, then the doctor will write out examinations to confirm the diagnosis and determine the methods of treatment. The result may be unreliable if you do not follow the rules for preparing for the analysis. In addition, other factors influence this.
The indicator may increase due to physical fatigue, epilepsy, pathologies of the pituitary, thyroid, or adrenal glands. If the patient could not refuse diuretic drugs, then they can also affect blood sugar levels. Medicines containing nicotinic acid or adrenaline also have an effect.
A low figure may indicate that fasting before the start of the collection of analysis was too long (more than 15 hours). The decline of glucose is possible due to tumors, obesity, alcohol poisoning, arsenic or chloroform, as well as diseases of the liver and other organs of the digestive tract. All these factors are dismantled and taken into account when drawing up the curve. After that often repeated examination is required.
Carrying out the procedure
An analysis of the sugar curve during pregnancy can be done at a public clinic or private institution. In the first case, testing is free, but because of the large queues, some prefer to go through the procedure for money in order to save time and learn more about their condition. In different laboratories, blood for sugar can be taken by venous or capillary method.
Terms of preparation of the solution used during the treatment event:
- The tool is prepared before the study itself.
- Glucose in the amount of 75 g is diluted in pure non-carbonated water.
- The concentration means determined by the doctor.
- Because some pregnant women do not tolerate sweets, you can add a little lemon juice to the solution.
During the GTT test, blood is given several times. The amount of glucose that is taken for analysis depends on the time of its holding. The first fence occurs on an empty stomach. It is necessary to determine the concentration of sugar. From this indicator, which should not exceed 6.7 mmol / l, depends on further research. Then the patient is given a solution in a volume of 200 ml with glucose diluted in it. Every 30 minutes a woman takes blood. The test lasts two hours. Blood is collected in only one way. During the procedure, you can not take blood from the finger and veins at the same time.
After passing the analysis, the specialist measures the blood sugar level. On the basis of the information obtained, a sugar curve is drawn up, on which one can detect a possible impairment of glucose tolerance that has arisen during childbirth The time intervals of pregnancy in which blood was taken are indicated by dots on the graph of the horizontal axis.
A minus of such a study for patients is the repeated piercing of a finger or vein, as well as the intake of a sweet solution. Oral glucose intake is given to women during the childbearing period.
Interpretation of results
The gynecologist first looks at the finished blood tests, who then directs the patient to an endocrinologist. If there are deviations of sugar from the allowable values, the doctor may refer the pregnant woman to other specialists.
Interpretation of the test result is carried out taking into account the patient’s health, body weight, age, lifestyle and associated pathologies. The rate of the sugar level is slightly different in pregnant women. But if the allowable values are exceeded, the doctor sends the woman to re-collect blood.
Normal fasting glucose values are less than 5.4 mmol / l, after 30–60 minutes - no more than 10 mmol / l, and with the last blood sampling - no more than 8.6 mmol / l. You should also be aware that the index of indicators in different medical institutions may differ, since specialists use different test methods.
When a pregnant woman gives a blood test for GTT, a sharp increase in blood glucose should be avoided by a doctor. The sugar concentration is analyzed at the first stage of the procedure. If the indicator exceeds the allowable values, then the testing is stopped. A specialist appoints a pregnant event, which include:
- change in nutrition with the exception of excessive carbohydrates;
- the use of physical therapy;
- regular medical supervision, which may be inpatient or outpatient;
- insulin therapy (if necessary);
- Glycemia monitoring, which is measured using a glucometer.
If the diet does not give the desired effect on the concentration of sugar, then the patient is given an injection of the hormone, which is carried out in stationary conditions. The dosage is prescribed by the attending physician.
If you correctly select the method of therapy, then it is possible to minimize the harm to the unborn child. However, the revealed elevated glucose level in a woman makes its changes during pregnancy. For example, delivery occurs at week 38.
Danger of high sugar
When a woman does not know about the characteristics of gestational diabetes mellitus and does not follow the diet, the level of glucose in her blood quickly decreases or rises, leading to negative consequences. The expectant mother needs to understand that in the period of childbearing she must follow all the recommendations of the attending physician and pass the necessary tests on which the health of the child and her own condition depend.
The deviation of glycemia from the permissible values is expressed in discomfort in pregnant women. Violation occurs with attendant consequences in the form of increased urge to urinate, dryness of the membranes of the oral cavity, itching, boils, acne, physical weakness and fatigue. In severe form, palpitations increase, consciousness gets confused, dizziness and migraine are tormented. In some women, the disease is accompanied by convulsive fever and blurred vision.
In addition, an elevated glucose concentration can adversely affect fetal development. Women often have premature labor or eclampsia. Choking or death of the fetus may occur. The risk of birth injury often increases. Sometimes you have to have a cesarean section. If pregnant women are prescribed insulin therapy during the first gestational diabetes, they may develop hyper- or hypoglycemia. The emergence of the disease is affected by a sharp change in diet and lifestyle in general. At any pharmacy, you can buy a portable blood glucose meter. With him it will be possible to independently measure the level of sugar and not waste time visiting a specialist.
Diabetes mellitus has ceased to be a rare pathology, so pregnant women are often at risk of its development. The disease, which manifests itself in the gestational form, is characterized by the occurrence during the carrying of the baby and self-withdrawal after the birth. In rare cases, a woman’s problem may remain after the baby is born. Six weeks after the baby is born, the patient is recommended to retake the blood test to determine the glucose level. Based on the results, the doctor identifies the progression or disappearance of the disease.