Diabetes mellitus - a chronic disease that occurs as a result of metabolic disorders in the body. The disease can affect any inhabitant of our planet, regardless of gender and age. With each passing year, the number of people with diabetes continues to increase.
Diabetes disrupts the secretion of the hormone insulin by the pancreas. For the breakdown of sugar and the stabilization of the condition, insulin preparations are introduced into the patient's body, for example, actrapid, which we will talk about today.
Without permanent insulin injections, sugar is not digested properly, it causes systemic disorders in all organs of the human body. In order for Actrapid NM to act properly, you must follow the rules of drug administration and constantly monitor the level of glucose in the blood.
According to the instructions for use, Actrapid is used to treat:
- Diabetes of the first type (patients are dependent on the constant supply of insulin in the body);
- Diabetes of the second type (insulin resistant. Patients with this type of diabetes often use tablets, but with increasing diabetes experience, such drugs cease to act, insulin injections are used to reduce sugar in such cases).
Recommend insulin Actrapid during pregnancy and feeding, as well as the development of diseases that accompany diabetes. The drug has effective analogues, for example, Actrapid MS, Iletin Regular, BetaSint and others. Please note that the transition to analogs is carried out exclusively in the hospital under the supervision of the attending physician and constant monitoring of blood sugar levels.
Subcutaneous, intramuscular and intravenous administration of the drug is allowed. After subcutaneous administration, patients are advised to choose the thigh area for injection, this is where the drug is absorbed slowly and evenly.
Additionally, you can use for injections the area of the buttocks, the forearm and the front wall of the abdominal cavity (when injected into the abdomen, the effect of the drug begins as soon as possible). You should not make injections in one area more than once a month, the drug can cause lipodystrophy.
Set the drug in an insulin syringe:
- Before the procedure, the hands must be washed and disinfected;
- Insulin is easy to roll between the hands (the drug must be checked for the presence of sediment and foreign inclusions, as well as for the shelf life);
- Air is drawn into the syringe, a needle is inserted into the ampoule, air is released;
- The right amount of the drug is drawn into the syringe;
- Excess air from the syringe is removed by tapping.
If it is necessary to supplement short insulin with a long one, the following algorithm is performed:
- Air is introduced into both ampoules (both short and long);
- First, short-acting insulin is drawn into the syringe, then it is supplemented with a long-lasting preparation;
- The air is removed by tapping.
Diabetics with little experience are not recommended to inject Aktropid into the shoulder area independently, since there is a high risk to form an insufficient skin-fat fold and inject the drug intramuscularly. It should be noted that when using needles up to 4-5 mm, the subcutaneous fat fold does not form at all.
It is forbidden to introduce the drug in the tissue, modified by lipodystrophy, and also in the place of hematomas, seals, scars and scars.
It is possible to inject Aktropid with the help of a usual insulin syringe, a syringe pen or an automatic pump. In the latter case, the drug is injected into the body independently, in the first two it is worth mastering the injection technique.
- Using the thumb and index finger at the injection site, a fold is made in order to ensure the insulin flow into the fat, not the muscles (for needles up to 4-5 mm, you can do without the fold);
- The syringe is installed perpendicular to the fold (for needles up to 8 mm, if more than 8 mm is at an angle of 45 degrees to the fold), the angle is pressed all the way, and the drug is injected;
- The patient counts up to 10 and takes out a needle;
- At the end of the manipulation of the fat fold is released, the injection site is not pounded.
- Set disposable needle;
- The drug is easily mixed, using the dispenser, 2 units of the drug are selected, they are injected into the air;
- Using the switch sets the value of the desired dose;
- A fat fold is formed on the skin, as described in the previous technique;
- The drug is injected by pressing the piston until it stops;
- After 10 seconds, the needle is removed from the skin, the fold is released.
If short acting Actrapid is used, it is not necessary to mix it before use.
To exclude improper absorption of the drug and the occurrence of hypoglycemia, as well as hyperglycemia, you should not prick insulin into unsuitable areas and use dosages not agreed with your doctor. The use of expired Actrapid is prohibited, the drug may cause an overdose of insulin.
Introduction intravenously or intramuscularly is carried out only under the supervision of the attending physician. Actrapid is introduced into the body half an hour before meals, the food must contain carbohydrates.
How does Actrapid
Insulin Aktrapid belongs to the group of drugs whose main action is aimed at reducing blood sugar levels. It is a short acting drug.
Reduced sugar occurs due to:
- Enhanced transport of glucose in the body;
- Activation of lipogenesis and glycogenesis processes;
- Protein metabolism;
- The liver begins to produce less glucose;
- Glucose is better absorbed by the tissues of the body.
The degree and speed of the body's drug effect depends on several factors:
- Insulin Dosage Dosage;
- Method of administration (syringe, syringe pen, insulin pump);
- Chosen place for drug intake (abdomen, upper arm, thigh or buttock).
After subcutaneous administration of Actrapid, the drug begins to act after 30 minutes, it reaches its maximum concentration in 1-3 hours, depending on the individual characteristics of the patient, the hypoglycemic effect is active for 8 hours.
When switching to Actrapid in patients for several days (or weeks, depending on the individual characteristics of the patient), swelling of the limbs and problems with clearness of vision can be observed.
Other adverse reactions are recorded when:
- Improper nutrition after drug administration, or skipping meals;
- Excessive physical exertion;
- Administering too much insulin at the same time.
The most common side effect is hypoglycemia. If the patient has pale skin, excessive irritability and hunger, there is confusion, tremor of the extremities and increased sweating, possibly blood sugar fell below the permissible level.
At the first manifestations of symptoms, it is necessary to measure the sugar and eat easily digestible carbohydrates, with loss of consciousness, the patient is intramuscularly injected with glucose.
In some cases, insulin actrapid can cause allergic reactions that occur:
- Occurrence of irritation at the injection site, redness of painful swelling;
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Trouble breathing;
If the patient does not follow the rules of injections in different places, lipodystrophy develops in the tissues.
Patients in whom hypoglycemia is observed on an ongoing basis, it is imperative to consult your doctor to adjust the injected doses.
Hypoglycemia can often be caused not only by an overdose of the drug, but also by several other reasons:
- Change the drug on the analogue without medical supervision;
- Failure to follow the diet with injections;
- Excessive physical exertion or physical stress;
- Change of place for injections.
If the patient injects an insufficient amount of the drug or misses the introduction, he develops hyperglycemia (ketoacidosis), a condition no less dangerous, which can lead to a comatose state.
Signs of hyperglycemia:
- Thirst and hunger;
- Redness of the skin;
- Frequent urge to urinate;
- The smell of acetone from the mouth;
Use during pregnancy
Treatment with Actrapide is allowed in case of pregnancy of the patient. During the whole period it is necessary to control the level of sugar and change the dosage. So, during the first trimester, the need for the drug decreases, during the second and third, on the contrary, it increases.
After childbirth, the need for insulin is restored to the level that was before pregnancy.
During lactation, dosage reduction may be necessary. The patient needs to carefully monitor blood sugar levels in order not to miss the moment when the need for the drug will stabilize.
Purchase and storage
You can purchase Actrapid at a pharmacy with a prescription from a doctor.
It is best to store the drug in the refrigerator at a temperature of 2 to 7 degrees Celsius. Do not allow the drug to be in direct heat or sunlight. When frozen, Aktrapid loses its sugar-lowering characteristics.
Before the injection the patient should check the expiration date of the drug, do not use expired insulin. Be sure to check the vial or vial with Actrapid for the presence of sediment and foreign inclusions.
Actrapid is used by patients with both diabetes mellitus of the first type and the second type. With proper use and compliance with the dosages specified by the doctor, it does not cause the development of side effects in the body.
Remember that diabetes treatment should take place in a comprehensive manner: in addition to daily injections of the drug, it is necessary to adhere to a certain diet, monitor physical activity and not subject the body to stressful situations.