Everyone knows that diabetes today is a very common disease that manifests itself in disorders of carbohydrate, protein, fat and fluid metabolism. Diabetes mellitus develops as a result of insufficient insulin production.
The insulin imbalance results in a high sugar content in any biological body fluids. Diabetes has a very rich symptoms, this is due to the fact that the disease involves almost all systems of the human body.
Rarely in any patient there are no pathological changes in the skin. Often, the skin of a diabetic is dry, there is an inexplicable itching, rash, dermatosis, blemishes and other infectious diseases that are difficult to treat. These symptoms are the first signs of diabetes.
Disease and its causes
Inherent in diabetes severe metabolic disorders lead to the occurrence of pathological changes in most of the systems and organs.
Note! The causes of the development of skin diseases in diabetes mellitus are quite obvious. These include serious metabolic disorders and accumulations in the tissues and cells of products of improper metabolism.
As a result, changes occur in the dermis, sweat glands, epidermis, inflammatory processes in the follicles.
The resulting decrease in local immunity provokes infection with pathogens. If the disease is severe, the patient's derma changes according to general criteria, various skin manifestations appear.
In diabetes, the skin loses its elasticity, becomes coarse and rough, begins to peel off like a spinous keratoderm, spots appear.
How skin changes are classified
Today in medicine more than thirty various dermatoses are described. These diseases are precursors of diabetes mellitus or occur simultaneously with it.
- Primary diseases. This group of pathologies includes all skin diseases provoked by metabolic disorders of the body.
- Secondary diseases. This group combined all kinds of infectious skin diseases: bacterial, fungal. In patients with diabetes, manifestations occur due to a decrease in local and general immune responses.
- The third group included diseases of the skin that have arisen as a result of the use of drugs that are prescribed for the treatment of diabetes.
Primary dermatoses are characterized by changes in the small vessels of the circulatory system. These manifestations were provoked by impaired metabolic processes.
The disease is characterized by light brown spots that are covered with scales of dry, flaky skin. These spots are round and, as a rule, are localized on the lower extremities.
Diabetic dermopathy does not cause any subjective sensations in the patient, and its symptoms are often perceived by patients as the appearance of senile or other age spots, therefore they do not pay attention to these spots.
For this disease, special treatment is required.
The disease is rarely a companion of diabetes. However, the cause of the development of this disease is a violation of carbohydrate metabolism. For quite a long time, lipoid necrobiosis may be the only symptom of developing diabetes.
This disease is considered female, since it affects women most often. On the skin of the patient's lower leg, cyanotic red spots appear. As the dermatosis begins to progress, the rash and spots turn into very large plaques. The center of these growths acquires a yellow-brown tint, and the edges continue to remain bluish-red.
Over time, in the center of the spot develops an area of atrophy, covered with telangiectasias. Occasionally, integuments in the area of plaques become covered with ulcers. This can be seen in the photo. Until this point, the defeat does not bring the patient suffering, pain appears only during the ulceration period, and here you already need to know how to treat diabetic foot and trophic ulcers.
The defeat of the vessels of the lower extremities proceeds with the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that overlap the vessels and interfere with blood flow. The result is a malnutrition of the epidermis. The skin of the patient becomes dry and thin.
This disease is characterized by very poor healing of skin wounds.
Even small scratches can turn into suppurating ulcers. The patient is disturbed by pain in the calf muscles, which occur while walking and disappear at rest.
A patient with diabetes mellitus blisters and spots are formed on the skin of the fingers, back, forearm and ankles, as a result of which it resembles a burned skin. Most often, blisters appear in people with diabetic neuropathy. These blisters do not cause pain and after 3 weeks they disappear without special treatment.
The disease manifests itself as follows: a yellow rash appears on the patient's body, the islets of which are surrounded by red crowns. Xanthomas are localized on the legs, buttocks and back. This type of dermatosis is characteristic of patients who have, in addition to diabetes, a high level of cholesterol.
For this disease is characterized by the appearance of arcuate or ring-shaped rashes. Often, rashes and blemishes occur on the skin of the feet, fingers, and hands.
Papillary pigment dystrophy of the skin
This type of dermatosis is manifested by the appearance of brown spots in the inguinal folds, armpits, on the lateral surfaces of the neck. Dystrophy of the skin occurs most often in people with cellulite.
They are often harbingers of diabetes. However, a direct link between the severity of metabolic disorders and severity of itching is not observed. On the contrary, often patients in whom the disease proceeds in a mild or latent form suffer more from persistent itching.
In patients with diabetes, often develop fungal dermatosis. The disease begins with the appearance of severe itching of the skin in the folds. After that, symptoms typical for candidiasis develop, but at the same time, it is itching for diabetes mellitus:
- whitish plaque;
Not less often with diabetes are observed bacterial infections in the form of:
Bacterial dermatoses are mainly the result of staphylococcal or streptococcal flora.
It is sad, but diabetics are forced to take drugs throughout their lives. Naturally, this can cause all sorts of allergic manifestations that can be seen in the photo.
How are dermatoses diagnosed
For the first time the patient who applied, first sent for analyzes, which include a study on the level of sugar. Often, diabetes is diagnosed in the office of a dermatologist.
Further, the diagnosis of dermatosis in diabetes mellitus is the same as in other skin diseases:
- First, an examination of the skin occurs.
- Laboratory and instrumental studies.
- Bacteriological analyzes.
How to treat
Usually, primary diabetic dermatosis does not require special treatment. When the patient's condition stabilizes, the symptoms usually subside.
Treatment of infectious dermatoses requires the appointment of specific therapy using antifungal and antibacterial drugs.
Dermatozy and traditional medicine
In order to reduce the likelihood of skin manifestations in diabetes mellitus, today traditional medicine is quite actively used.
- 100 gr. celery root will need 1 lemon with peel. Remove the seeds from the lemon and grind both components in a blender. Put the mixture in a water bath and warm up for 1 hour. Mass folded in a glass dish, close the lid and refrigerate for storage. Take the composition on an empty stomach in the morning for 1 tbsp. a spoon. This treatment course is quite long - at least 2 years.
- To improve the condition of the skin need to use a bath with a decoction of the train or oak bark.
- A decoction of birch buds is used to wipe skin inflamed with dermatoses.
- Dermatosis is well treated with aloe. The leaves are cut from the plant and, removing the prickly skin, they are applied to the sites of localization of rash or inflammation.
- To relieve itching it is worth trying lotion decoction of mint leaves, oak bark and St. John's wort. At 1 cup of water put 3 tbsp. spoons of the mixture. Warm decoction wet napkins that are applied to the affected places.
The prognosis for diabetic dermatoses depends on how much the patient is ready to fight the disease and restore metabolism.
In order to prevent the occurrence of skin dermatoses, special procedures for skin care are applied. Detergents should be the softest and do not contain fragrances, after a hygienic shower, you must use moisturizers.
If the skin of the feet is hardened, you should use a special file or pumice. Formed corns can not be cut off by yourself. It is also not recommended to use means for burning.
The wardrobe of the patient should consist of natural fabrics. Every day you need a change of underwear and socks. Clothing should not be tight, otherwise it will squeeze and rub the skin. The appearance of any rash - a reason to contact a dermatologist.