Enzyme insufficiency of the pancreas is a pathology in which there is a restriction of secretion or reduced activity of the pancreatic enzymes produced by the body. This pathology leads to impaired cleavage and absorption of beneficial components of food in the intestine.
Pathology is manifested by a strong weight loss of the patient, the appearance of flatulence, anemia, steatorrhea, polyphilia, diarrhea and the appearance of polyhypovitaminosis.
Diagnosis of the disease is based on the use of laboratory methods for the study of the exocrine organ activity.
In addition, the study of fecal masses is applied by carrying out a coprogram and determining the presence of enzymes and their quantity in fecal masses.
Disease therapy includes the treatment of the main disease, the normalization of nutrients in the patient's body, conducting enzyme replacement therapy, the implementation of symptomatic treatment.
Types of enzyme deficiency
A lack of pancreatic enzymes can occur for several reasons.
Depending on the reasons that led to the development of pathology, there are several types of deficiency.
Each type of pathology has its own symptoms and causes. Determining the causes of the occurrence of the violation is the basis for choosing the method of treatment.
Doctors distinguish four types of enzyme deficiency:
The most common factors affecting the development of the pathological condition are the following:
- Violation of the integrity of glandular tissue.
- The appearance in the body of a deficiency of essential vitamins.
- The decrease in protein content in the blood serum.
- Reduction in hemoglobin in the blood.
- The consumption of foods that do not allow to completely fill the needs for nutrients and excessive consumption of spicy and fatty foods.
- The presence of hereditary predisposition to the development in the body of disorders associated with the work of the body.
Depending on the situation, one or other reasons become the leading factors in the appearance of a pathological disorder.
Common symptoms for all types of deficiency are disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
Symptoms, causes and treatment of exocrine insufficiency
Exocrine deficiency is the inadequate production of juices involved in the digestive process.
The most common causes of the occurrence of such a violation are problems in the functioning of the digestive tract. Problems in the gastrointestinal tract are caused by diseases of the stomach, intestines, gallbladder.
In addition to these problems leads to the abuse of a variety of diets, leading to an imbalance in the saturation of the body with nutrients and passion for the use of alcoholic beverages.
The exocrine lack of pancreatic enzymes is characterized by the following symptoms:
- stool disorder;
- the appearance of a feeling of heaviness in the stomach;
- a feeling of nausea;
- violation of the processes of digestion.
It is impossible to make an exact diagnosis solely for the identified symptoms. To clarify the type of failure and determine the method of its treatment requires a whole range of laboratory tests.
To accurately determine the type of pathology should do the following tests:
- general blood analysis.
- Blood test for sugar content.
A blood sugar test is mandatory, since the occurrence of this type of disorder is most often associated with the development of diabetes in the patient's body.
Treatment of exocrine deficiency is carried out by following a special diet, excluding alcohol from the diet, enriching the diet with foods that are rich in vitamins A, C, E.
In addition, treatment is required by taking special medications that stimulate the production of enzymes.
Symptoms, causes and treatment of exocrine insufficiency
Excretory deficiency is characterized by a lack of enzymes for the normal functioning of the digestive system and the normal breakdown of the components of the food lump.
This situation arises as a result of the development of pathologies in which the number of glandular tissue cells of an organ responsible for the synthesis of secretion decreases.
The main symptom of such a violation is a mushy stool with a large inclusion of fat and a characteristic oily sheen.
In addition, such a disorder in the work of an adult pancreas is accompanied by the appearance of the following symptoms:
- shortness of breath;
- convulsive seizures;
- there is a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen;
- disruption of the blood coagulability system;
- dry skin appears;
- there is a rejection to fatty and spicy dishes;
- tachycardia develops;
- there are pains in the bones.
The reasons for this violation may be a decrease in the number of cells of the exocrine tissue and reduced activity of enzymes produced by the gland in the process of digestion.
Therapeutic measures in the event of such a pathology consist in adjusting the diet. It is recommended to use the fractional method for food, food should be taken often, but in small portions. A restriction on the consumption of fatty and spicy food is introduced, the consumption of meat and fish is limited. Meat products that are eaten should be with a minimum fat content, fermented milk products used for food should have a low-fat composition.
A restriction is imposed on food intake in the evening and at night, during this period the digestive system should be fully relaxed. Alcohol with this type of pathology should be completely excluded from the diet.
It is recommended to eat more plant foods, fruits and vegetables. With this type of disorder requires special attention to the amount of carbohydrates consumed. To reduce the intensity of gas formation, it is recommended to use such medications as Mezim and Creon.
Successful treatment leads to the normalization of the process of fermentation of food, as evidenced by the formation of normal feces and good performance of the coprogram.
Symptoms, causes and treatment of pancreatic enzyme deficiency
Enzymes synthesized by the cells of an organ are responsible for the digestion of food entering the body. In the event that their number is reduced, pancreatic enzyme insufficiency develops. There are several reasons for the appearance of such pathology.
The main causes of the pathological condition are the following:
- Adverse effect on the state of the gland of drugs used in the treatment of certain diseases in the body.
- The development of an infectious process in the body.
- Pathology in the structure and structure of the duct.
- Congenital malformations in organ development.
- The development in the patient's body dysbiosis.
When diagnosing this type of disease, the following classic signs are revealed:
- a person has weakness and lethargy;
- formation of fecal liquid masses with an unpleasant smell;
- there is a decrease in appetite;
- excessive gas formation occurs;
- the patient loses a lot of body weight;
- there is a feeling of constant nausea;
- in humans, the appearance of pain in the abdomen.
To diagnose this type of disorder in the work of the pancreas, the following examination methods are used:
- Blood test.
- Analysis of feces.
- Analysis of urine.
- Computed tomography of the organ.
- Ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity.
During the treatment of pathology, special medications are used that can normalize the digestive process. With this disease it is also recommended to follow a high-calorie diet.
Symptoms, causes and treatment of endocrine pancreatic insufficiency
Endocrine insufficiency is most often caused by the occurrence of various injuries affecting the pancreas, as well as the occurrence of fragmentary lesions of tissues of the organ.
In the event of damage to the tissue sites responsible for the production of lipocaine, insulin and glucagon, there is a high probability of developing type 1 diabetes in the body of a patient.
There are several signs indicating the presence of this type of violation.
The main features are:
- the emergence of the urge to vomit;
- the occurrence of fetid gas and diarrhea;
- development of diarrhea;
- increased bowel movement;
- the appearance of bloating.
When conducting blood tests revealed bright abnormalities. In addition to the use of biochemical and general blood tests, an analysis is being performed on pancreatic hormones and plasma sugar content.
Obligatory methods of examination for the detection of this pathology are ultrasound, computed tomography, coprogram analysis and urinalysis.
The treatment of this disorder consists in carrying out strict control of the level of sugar in the body through the use of a special diet. If necessary, if the dietary supply is not enough to keep the blood sugar within the normal range, resort to the use of special hypoglycemic drugs and insulin therapy.
Pancreatic insufficiency is described in the video in this article.