Gynecologists are required to send pregnant women to donate blood for analysis to determine the concentration of glucose.
This is due to the fact that in the period of gestation of the embryo, some women develop diabetes.
After receiving the results of the glucose test, the expectant mother wonders if the indicator is not increased. To correctly interpret the data of laboratory analysis, it is necessary to know the rate of sugar in the blood of pregnant women.
Which trimester is necessary to pass the analysis?
Women who are not in the risk category for diabetes are doing a test for glucose concentration in the third trimester.
Future mothers with a predisposition or the presence of endocrinological disorders pass serum to study the composition at registration and periodically during the period of pregnancy.
This helps prevent the development of diabetes, to avoid negative consequences for the woman and her child.
Preparation for the study
Sometimes an analysis of the glycemic level gives a false-positive or false-negative result. In order to get the correct glucose test data, a pregnant woman should be prepared for an examination.
Experts advise to follow these rules:
- Do not have breakfast before going to the clinic. In the morning, only non-carbonated water is allowed;
- if the day before the examination, the pregnant woman began to feel ill, then you need to inform the laboratory technician or the doctor about it;
- sleep well before analysis;
- on the eve of the survey it is not necessary to overload the stomach with heavy carbohydrate food;
- an hour before the test, you must eliminate physical activity;
- during the period of blood sampling it is impossible to worry;
- on the day of the study, it is worthwhile to give up drinking alcoholic beverages and smoking.
Norm of blood sugar in pregnant women according to new standards: table
The concentration of glucose is determined in blood obtained from a vein or finger. The method of sampling affects the value of the standard value. So, in the venous serum allowed a higher level of sugar.
Out of finger
To check the work of the pancreas, gynecologists recommend pregnant women to take a test with a carbohydrate load. Two servings of serum are taken: on an empty stomach and two hours later after drinking a glucose drink.
Serum sugar standards for a healthy woman in the position are shown in the table below:
|Norm on an empty stomach||Norm a couple of hours after eating food, carbohydrate drink|
|3.3 - 5.1 mmol / l||up to 7.5 mmol / l|
When deciphering the result, it is important to consider what blood was used for analysis.
In the case of venous plasma, the standards will be as follows:
|The norm for the analysis carried out on an empty stomach||Standard after a couple of hours after the carbohydrate load|
|4-6.3 mmol / l||below 7.8 mmol / l|
Acceptable plasma glucose for gestational diabetes during pregnancy
When cells begin to perceive the effects of insulin worse, then the gestational form of diabetes develops.
In 3% of cases, this pathological condition after delivery leads to the development of diabetes of the second or first form.
With pre-diabetes before pregnancy during gestation of the embryo, the likelihood of the appearance of a gestational type of pathology increases.
The standard of sugar in capillary serum for women with gestational pathology is given in the table below:
|Norma on an empty stomach||Norma after a couple of hours field food|
|from 5.2 to 7.1 mmol / l||up to 8.6 mmol / l|
In women with gestational type of diabetes, the presence of sugar in urine in concentrations up to 1.72 mmol / l is allowed.
The standard concentration of glucose in the venous blood for pregnant women is given in the table below:
|Norm on an empty stomach||Normal value an hour after eating|
|up to 7.5 mmol / l||up to 8.8 mmol / l|
What should be the level of sugar in the normal fasting and after eating during lactation?
During the lactation period, the fasting sugar standard is in the range of 3.5-5.5 mmol / l for capillary serum and up to 6.1 mmol / l for venous.
When feeding, the glucose concentration decreases. After a couple of hours after lunch (dinner), the level of glycemia can reach 6.5-7 mmol / l.
The reasons for the deviation of indicators from the standard
It happens that during pregnancy, glucose deviates from the standard. This may occur for reasons of physiological or pathological nature. High serum sugar is called hyperglycemia, and low is hypoglycemia.
In the period of gestation of the embryo, serum examination rarely shows glucose levels below normal. Usually this condition develops at 16-17 weeks of pregnancy.
Hypoglycemia caused by such reasons:
- a woman wants to lose weight and decided to go on a low-calorie diet;
- improper use of sugar-reducing drugs for diabetes (overdose, delayed food intake);
- severe physical fatigue.
Hypoglycemia can provoke such pathologies:
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- malignant (benign) tumors in the intestine or stomach;
If the pancreas loses the ability to synthesize a sufficient amount of insulin, sugar begins to accumulate in the blood. Also, hyperglycemia is provoked by placental hormones (somatomammotropin). These substances are actively involved in metabolic processes, protein synthesis.
They increase the concentration of sugar and reduce the sensitivity of body cells to it. Somatomammotropin is required for the embryo to receive a sufficient amount of glucose for life.
Causes of high blood glucose levels during gestation are:
- the presence of preeclampsia in history;
- gestational diabetes;
- hepatic pathology;
- overweight, which changes fat metabolism and raises cholesterol levels;
- internal bleeding;
- Miscarriage of the embryo in history;
- high water flow;
- genetic predisposition;
- an excess of fast carbohydrates in the diet;
- disorders of the thyroid gland;
- age from 30 years;
- condition of chronic stress;
- Birth last babies weighing more than 4 kilograms.
How does a woman's age affect performance?Deciphering the results of the analysis for sugar, it is worth considering how many years pregnant. With age, the organs wear out, they begin to cope worse with the load.
If a woman is under 30 years old, the glucose in the period of childbearing will be within the limits of standard values.
Older pregnant women may experience signs of hyperglycemia.
If a woman decided to conceive a child after 30 years, while her mother, father or immediate family had diabetes, then she is highly likely that during pregnancy the glucose will reach critical levels.
Home blood glucose concentration measurement
To determine the concentration of glycemia in the blood, it is not necessary to go to the laboratory. Today, there are devices for self-measurement of sugar - blood glucose meters.
You can purchase the device in medical equipment. To check the glucose content, you should additionally buy test strips. Before you measure the concentration of glycemia, you need to familiarize yourself with the instructions for use of the device.
Algorithm using the meter:
- wash your hands with toilet soap;
- warm your fingers to room temperature (for this you need to massage your hands);
- treat with alcohol the area of the finger in which the puncture will be made;
- turn on the device;
- enter the code;
- insert the test strip into the special slot of the meter;
- scarifier pierce a finger in the side;
- drop a few drops of serum on the area of application of the test strip;
- Apply cotton moistened with alcohol to the puncture site;
- evaluate the result on the monitor after 10-30 seconds.
Sometimes the home blood glucose meter may be wrong.
The most common reasons for obtaining an unreliable result:
- the use of test strips designed for another model of the device;
- use of expired test strips;
- failure to comply with the temperature regime when taking a portion of the plasma;
- excessive or insufficient blood for examination;
- contamination of test strips, hands;
- hit in plasma of disinfecting solution;
- the instrument has not been calibrated;
- non-compliance with test strips storage conditions (low or high temperature, loosely closed bottle).
About the norms of blood sugar in pregnant women in the video:
Thus, during pregnancy, a woman is prone to developing gestational diabetes. This is due to the increased load on all organs, including the pancreas.
In order to avoid the development of a pathological condition, you should regularly donate blood for sugar. To do this, you should contact a special laboratory at the clinic (hospital) or purchase a home blood glucose meter.