Hypothyroidism is one of the pathologies of the body associated with disruption of the thyroid gland. The disease develops on the background of insufficient hormone production in both women and men.
This type of thyroid dysfunction is the most common, often diagnosed in women, the age does not play a role. There are congenital and acquired forms of hypothyroidism.
Treatment is carried out with the help of individually selected hormonal and vitamin preparations.
Timely and adequate therapy, as a rule, gives a lasting result, allowing you to get rid of the characteristic symptoms and lead a normal life. The treatment is suitable for almost all women.
Causes of development in women
What are the causes of the disease and what is it? Since congenital hypothyroidism occurs more often than that acquired in women, the first causes may be in the form of genetic predisposition. The development of the disease in women may be due to the following factors:
- Deformity of the thyroid gland - aplasia or hypoplasia;
- Incorrect location of the thyroid gland - in the hypoglossal region of the larynx;
- Violation of the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones.
There are such types of acquired hypothyroidism:
Primary hypothyroidism develops in direct lesion of the thyroid gland. Causes - surgery on the thyroid gland, its injuries, diseases of infectious and filtration character, X-ray irradiation, iodine deficiency in the body, autoimmune thyroiditis.
Secondary hypothyroidism, its formation is caused by lesions of the pituitary gland, as a result of which pathological changes in thyroid cells occur, and the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone is reduced. It is a frequent side effect with tumors and injuries of the pituitary gland.
Tertiary hypothyroidism is a consequence of the defeat of the hypothalamus areas responsible for the synthesis of the hormone thyroliberin (TRH) in women and men.
The peripheral form of the disease is observed when blocking circulating hypothyrotrophic hormones, or the resistance of body cells to them.
Science cannot give exact information as to why this phenomenon occurs, with a high degree of probability, its causes are inherited genetic predisposition.
Today, only signs are fixed and appropriate treatment is prescribed.
How to recognize hypothyroidism, symptoms
The decrease in the production of hormones, characteristic of any form of hypothyroidism, affects the functioning of almost all the internal organs and systems of a person: the gastrointestinal tract, heart, blood vessels, urogenital and central nervous systems. The symptoms in each case are quite obvious.
The development and course of the disease are long, almost always without pronounced symptoms at the initial stage. This variety of manifestations, often similar to the symptoms of other diseases, makes it difficult to timely diagnose hypothyroidism. The most common symptoms in women include:
- Chronic fatigue, fatigue;
- Decreased brain activity and memory capacity;
- Disruption of the menstrual cycle;
- Unexplained weight gain;
- Dry skin, brittle hair and nails;
- Swelling of the face and limbs;
- Chill without fever, constantly cold hands and feet.
Visually, sometimes it is possible to note an enlargement of the thyroid gland - the development of the so-called "goiter", a "bulging eye syndrome" is noted, these signs should not be missed.
The disease proceeds in three stages: latent, manifest and complicated. The first stage in most cases goes unnoticed, it’s more likely the causes of the disease, when a person is already experiencing discomfort, but there is no reason to make the diagnosis, the symptoms are not so obvious, and treatment is not yet required.
Discomfort and symptoms are reduced to apathy and frequent depressive moods in women, impaired memory and performance.
Manifest hypothyroidism is also called in medicine true hypothyroidism. There are two subspecies:
The symptoms are most pronounced in the decompensated form.
Complicated hypothyroidism in our time is extremely rare, as a rule, with this form of the disease, the vital organs of a person are seriously affected, acute heart failure, progressive mental retardation (cretinism), and polyserositis are observed.
Due to the fuzzy clinical picture of the disease and a large number of symptoms characteristic also in the pathologies of other organs, it is rather difficult to diagnose the disease even in the conditions of a modern clinic.
It is important not to confuse hypothyroidism with other hormonal dysfunctions, the consequences of which are rickets, Hirschsprung's disease, growth retardation, chondrodystrophy, each disease has similar symptoms.
To check the level of thyroid hormones, blood is taken from a vein. If the level of triiodothyronine and thyroxine is reduced, and thyroid-stimulating hormone is reduced or increased, we can assume the development of the disease.
To confirm the diagnosis, an ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland is performed, which helps to identify structural changes in the organ and its exact localization, as well as biopsy.
To be beaten from the disease, complex therapy is necessary. First of all, the normal functioning of the thyroid gland should be restored - hormonal preparations are prescribed for this purpose, after which the symptoms become less pronounced.
As a rule, these are synthetic substitutes for thyroid hormones. Individually, depending on the age, characteristics and form of the patient’s disease, medication and treatment are selected, the main active agent of which is sodium levothyroxne.
At the same time, iodotherapy is also often prescribed, if there is a lack of this trace element. The diet is corrected and the corresponding drugs are prescribed. All prescriptions must be made strictly by the doctor after examining the results of the analysis confirming iodine deficiency.
Possible complications and consequences
Hypothyroidism is a serious and dangerous disease, ignoring of which can lead to serious complications or even death. Treatment must be carried out under the supervision of a physician, with a constant check of the level of thyroid hormones and other indicators. Even after successful therapy, constant supervision by a specialist is necessary.
The most dangerous complication is hypothyroid coma, occurring with a sluggish form of the disease, which was not diagnosed in a timely manner. In most cases, it affects the elderly people, banal hypothermia, nervous shaking, trauma can become provocateurs. When hypothyroid coma characteristic:
- A strong decrease in body temperature;
- Hypoglycemic coma;
Without prompt medical intervention, the patient dies.
Heart and blood vessels are seriously affected. The content of harmful cholesterol in the blood increases dramatically, heart failure develops, and the risk of heart attack increases significantly.
Especially dangerous is the lack of diagnosis and the uncontrolled course of the disease in children with congenital thyroid dysfunction. Growth retardation, physical and mental retardation - these are only the main consequences of the disease, if you do not conduct hormone therapy in a timely manner.
The main condition for successful treatment is timely access to a doctor and strict implementation of all his recommendations. In the absence of complications, treatment and hormone therapy give remarkable and long-lasting results, the symptoms do not bother the patient at all, apathy and depressive states disappear.
It is worth noting that the full treatment and healing in the innate form of the disease is possible very rarely. Throughout life, the patient will have to take medications, follow a diet to maintain a normal state of the body. Modern hormonal drugs have almost no side effects and allow you to lead a lifestyle that is no different from others.
The acquired form can be safely and finally cured and the symptoms disappear. Since the decrease in thyroid hormone production is associated with the dysfunction of any organ, by restoring its work, it is also possible to restore the thyroid gland's ability to produce the required amount of hormones.