Alcoholic pancreatitis appears to be a severe form of the inflammatory process in the pancreas, developing as a result of chronic alcohol dependence or with a single use of alcoholic beverages or surrogates with fatty foods.
Subjective clinical manifestations: shingles pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, repeated vomiting, disruption of the digestive tract, diarrhea, an increase in body temperature.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of the examination of the patient. It is necessary to clarify the concentration of pancreatic enzymes, carried out an ultrasound, computed tomography or MRI.
Treatment of alcoholic pancreatitis is a complex and long process. The key factor of a positive result is the absolute exclusion of any alcoholic beverages from the diet.
The mechanism of development of alcoholic pancreatitis
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) identifies this form of the disease as ubiquitous. Etiopathogenesis is based on toxic damage to pancreatic cells.
Alcohol-induced pancreatitis is considered a disease that most often develops during chronic alcoholism. Ethanol and its derivatives adversely affect the tissues of the internal organ, which leads to a violation of functionality.
The development of the disease occurs in this scenario:
- In the secret of the internal organ under the influence of toxic substances begin to actively produce proteins.
- In the gastric cavity, the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases.
- In the liver, the production of bile increases, respectively, its concentration increases.
- In the duodenum due to the high content of acid in the stomach, there is an excessive production of hormones - cholecystokinin and pancreatic. Their level increases tenfold.
- Due to the high content of protein components, their association into large formations is revealed; as a result, proteins linger on the inner surface of the pancreatic ducts, which leads to the formation of protein plaques.
- This chain provokes a violation of the outflow of secreted secretion in the pancreas.
- Due to protein plaques, intraductal pressure increases, which leads to the penetration of enzyme substances into pancreatic tissue.
Enzyme components that are produced by the body are in a latent state. But in the process of normal digestion of food, they "wake up", help break down protein, fat and carbohydrate compounds.
When there is a violation of the outflow of enzymes, they are activated not in the ducts, but inside the body itself, which leads to their excess, pancreatic tissues are digested.
Inside the body, necrotic processes are observed, vascular passages narrow, inflammation manifests.
Types and symptoms
Acute alcoholic pancreatitis is an alcohol-pancreatic type of disease that develops as a result of one-time consumption of alcohol. Especially if the picture takes place against the background of one-time consumption of fatty foods and smoking.
This type of illness is a danger not only to human health, but also his life, which can lead to death in the absence of adequate assistance. Usually diagnosed in men at a young age.
Chronic alcoholic pancreatitis develops as an independent disease or due to an acute and neglected process. The illness is caused by the frequent use of alcohol, in other words, drunkenness. It does not matter how much alcohol enters the body.
Symptoms of pancreatitis in men with alcoholism increase gradually, until the processes of blockage of the excretory ducts of the gland. The main symptom of the pathological process is pain. It is present in the central region of the abdomen. The duration of pain varies from a few hours to a couple of days. If an alcoholic has an acute form of the disease, then after a meal, the symptoms increase many times over.
Having ascertained the etiology of the disease, and the effect of alcohol on the gland, consider the symptoms of the disease:
- Abdominal distention, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, which has a tendency to increase after eating food or alcohol.
- Shingles pain After eating, it starts to hurt more, it is possible to eliminate painful sensations only by means of strong medicines. With chronic remission, this symptom is muffled. Attacks of exacerbation usually occur every 6-12 months.
- Rapid weight loss, based on the violation of the gastrointestinal tract, reducing food intake.
- Change stool. Patients often visit the toilet, fecal masses become liquid, there is an oily sheen.
- In some cases, the picture is complemented by weakness, redness of the skin.
Based on the clinical manifestations, the doctor conducts a primary diagnosis, prescribes treatment for the disease.
In the absence of adequate therapy, inflammatory processes are transferred to the tissues surrounding the pancreas.
Treatment of inflammation of the pancreas
Acute form of alcoholic pancreatitis requires refusal of food within 1-4 days. Rest and abstinence from food allow the affected organ, which has taken over the blow of a large concentration of toxins, to rest.
Since the pathogenesis of the disease is caused by exposure to toxic substances, it is strictly forbidden to use alcohol during treatment. It is not recommended to smoke during therapy.
Description of the goals of therapeutic therapy:
- Neutralization and elimination of toxic components from the body, which came as a result of alcohol intoxication.
- Restoration of the functionality of the internal organ (removal of edema, leveling of the inflammatory process, normalization of the diameter of the ducts, improvement of pancreatic secretion outflow, etc.).
- Restoration of the functionality of other digestive organs that have suffered due to the negative effects of toxic substances.
- Reducing the severity of pain.
Recommended special food, implying the consumption of approved foods in accordance with the 5th pancreatic diet. Adult patients are prescribed enzyme medications as replacement therapy; antiemetic and painkillers. During therapy, it is necessary to control the concentration of glucose in the body, if necessary, adjust with the help of drugs.
Patients are prescribed to take Pancreatin - a drug that helps produce pancreatic juice. It contains enzymes - lipase, protease, amylase, which break down food.
Folk treatment at home will not help with an attack of exacerbation. In thematic forums, doctors note that self-medication can lead to serious complications, including death. The only thing you can do at home is to put a cold heating pad on your stomach to relieve pain.
Surgical intervention is focused on the opening of an abscess and cyst, the removal of part of the internal organ, to block the fistulous course.
Surgery is resorted to in cases where there are complications of pancreatitis.
Complications and prognosis, prevention
The frequent adverse effects of alcoholic pancreatitis include the occurrence of obstructive jaundice, the formation of fistulous passages, the development of cysts. Against the background of jaundice there is a strong poisoning of the body with bile, which leads to a change in the color of the skin - they become yellow.
No less dangerous consequence - the occurrence of diabetes - a chronic disease, accompanied by high blood glucose. In turn, this disease leads to other, equally serious complications.
The prognosis of chronic disease is unfavorable. In an acute attack, the prognosis depends on the severity of the pathology, clinical manifestations, timeliness of medical care. Often diagnosed with pancreatic necrosis, leading to the death of the patient.
Recommendations for prevention:
- Refusal of alcohol, smoking.
- Proper and balanced nutrition.
- Preventive visit to the gastroenterologist.
Alcohol consumption in the future leads to the fact that in the near future, diseases such as malignant tumors, cirrhosis of the liver, cholecystitis, gastroduodenitis appear on the patient's history record. Thus, the compatibility of alcohol and pancreatitis is zero.
The effects of alcohol on the pancreas are described in the video in this article.