The concept of glycosuria is necessary to understand the excessive concentration of glucose in human urine. This symptom is so dangerous that it cannot be left without close attention, especially if the so-called renal threshold is crossed.
The whole thing is that an increased amount of glucose in urine appears already at the last stage of the course of the disease, when there is almost no chance of a positive trend and renal glucosuria continues to develop.
Any violations in the state of human health can not proceed completely without symptoms. The same rule applies to glycosuria. First of all, the patient will be bothered by constant excruciating thirst. Even a short period of time the patient can not do without the use of fluid, if the renal threshold is passed.
The desire to drink is so strong that within 24 hours the patient can consume a volume of liquid that will exceed the recommended daily dosage several times. This is the main reason for increased urination, especially at night. The mechanism of the urges here is exactly that.
The signs and causes of glucosuria are not limited to thirst, because the patient can still be followed:
- sharp weight loss;
- no passing feeling of weakness;
- dry skin;
- persistent itching throughout the body (especially in intimate areas).
In addition, a symptom of a disease will be a significant decrease in the quality of vision, excessive drowsiness and a state of depression.
How to behave?
As soon as the patient suspected glucosuria and found at least one of the symptoms mentioned above, then in this case it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible for qualified help. This may be a urologist or endocrinologist. If this is not done, then there is a fairly high probability of endangering the health and even the life of the patient. This is especially important if glucosuria is detected in pregnant women and the renal threshold for glucose is passed.
The doctor will develop an adequate treatment regimen and help get rid of the burden of pathology, as well as reduce the concentration of sugar in urine and keep its composition at a normal level.
Forms and types of glycosuria
This disease can develop with an increased concentration of sugar in the blood, and with a decrease in the threshold of the kidneys. Therefore, medicine classifies such forms of glycosuria:
- alimentary - occurs with an increase in glucose volume only in a short time period, for example, after a meal containing many carbohydrates;
- emotional - sugar concentration increases only on the background of stress.
In addition, this pathology is often detected in pregnant women.
Before starting treatment, the doctor must determine the type of glycosuria and the mechanism of development, and then proceed to therapy. The disease can manifest itself in various types:
- daily allowance;
Each of these types has its own characteristics.
Renal glucosuria, as a rule, is manifested in congenital renal pathology, when excessive removal of glucose from the body occurs. Therefore, sugar is detected in the urine constantly, and the patient does not leave the feeling of hunger, weakness and fatigue.
Getting rid of this ailment involves the observance of a special diet, this diet with elevated sugar, which will give the opportunity to keep glucose in the normal range. With the disease, diabetes mellitus is renal disease, which indicates the need for additional therapy.
In a child, such a complication may develop against the background of genetic defects of the enzyme system in the tubules of the kidneys. With an increased sugar concentration (much higher than the physiological norm), there can be talk of serious pathology.
In particularly difficult cases, the child may be marked by a lag in physical development.
Renal form is the presence of glucose in the urine and the absence of its increase in the bloodstream. This kind of pathology can be:
- primary. Its peculiarity is in impaired absorption of sugar, which causes a decrease in the renal threshold. Symptoms will be mild, which is explained by the absence of a disturbance in the metabolism, however, the effects of primary glucosuria can be quite dangerous;
- secondary is manifested in chronic pathologies in the kidneys, for example, nephrosis or renal failure.
Daily glucosuria is an increase in glucose concentration in daily urine. In laboratory studies of individual urine samples, normal glucose values will be observed, not exceeding the renal threshold. In addition, a deviation from the norm will not always be a signal of the presence of pathology in a patient.
Increased sugar can be caused by too frequent consumption of sweets or quite strong exercise. For this reason, when detecting daily glucosuria, additional examination of a person is necessary.
Basic prerequisites for the development of glycosuria
In a relatively healthy person, glucosuria will be weak. Identify it will be possible only after appropriate laboratory research. In its course the main causes of pathology can be established.
There is an independent disease, which is called renal glucosuria. It can be diagnosed by chance if the following factors are present in the body of a sick person:
- insufficient amount of insulin in the urine;
- violation of the kidneys and liver;
- problems in carbohydrate metabolism;
- too frequent consumption of culinary dishes with high carbohydrate content.
How is the diagnosis and treatment process?
Usually, the diagnosis of renal glucosuria (with adequate glycemia) is made in the morning. This must be done on an empty stomach. Glycosuria will be confirmed if the concentration of glucose is the same in three subsequent urine tests.
To date, effective drug therapy aimed at getting rid of glycosuria has not yet been developed. Coming out of this, the whole process of treatment will be aimed at adhering to the strictest diet.
In the majority of cases, there is no need for treatment and renal glucosuria. However, the primary aspect in getting rid of the pathology becomes the provision of high-quality observance of a balanced diet. This rule applies to both adult patients and children.
It is extremely important to prevent the development of hyperglycemia, in which the level of sugar in urine will only increase. To prevent this process, it is necessary to keep records of consumed carbohydrates.
Those people who suffer from renal glucosuria constantly lose potassium. Therefore, the diet of such patients should include a lot of mineral-rich foods. It can be:
- legumes (peas, beans, lentils, soybeans);
- germinated grain (wheat, oats);
- vegetables (potatoes, baked in a peel);
- fruits (bananas).
There is a medical statistic that says that glucosuria is inherited. In view of this. It is necessary to carry out preventive measures, for example, medical and genetic counseling for future parents.
If a child suffers from elevated levels of sugar in the urine, and even more so if acetone is detected in the urine, then in this case it is necessary to provide him with constant medical supervision.