Blood is the main fluid for the body, so its condition must be carefully monitored. After all, even a minor change in its composition can lead to serious consequences.
Sugar level is an important indicator of the normal functioning of all organs and systems in the human body. The concentration of glucose reflects how carbohydrate metabolism occurs, and this substance is also considered the main source of energy for the body.
Sugar enters the blood after ingestion of carbohydrate foods. Its content can be low, normal and high.
Everyone knows that when glucose is too high, it is very bad for the systems and organs. Moreover, this condition is typical for people with diabetes. But if blood sugar is below normal, what does it mean?
What is hypoglycemia and why does it develop?
Blood sugar levels are interrelated with the fact that people regularly eat. So, when eating sweet and carbohydrate dishes, indicators sharply increase. At the same time, the pancreas begins to intensively produce insulin, a hormone that processes glucose into energy.
When insulin ceases to be produced, the glucose content should return to normal, but for various violations this does not occur. For example, in diabetes, hypoglycemia often occurs when, after a meal, the pancreas does not produce the required amount of the hormone.
But sometimes a low sugar is observed in a healthy person. Often this happens during a load of varying intensity.
The normal indicator of fasting glucose in the morning varies from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / l. With insignificant deviations of 5.6–6.6 mmol / l, one can speak of impaired glucose tolerance. This condition is the border between normal and abnormalities, and if sugar is higher than 6.7 mmol / l, then it is considered a clear sign of diabetes.
Hypoglycemia can be present not only in diabetics, but even in healthy people and children. Leading causes of low sugar:
- Intense physical activity with a low-calorie diet.
- Eating junk food regularly (fast food, sweets, flour).
- Taking certain medications.
- Early pregnancy.
- The use of beta-blockers in the background of sports.
- Menstruation in women.
- The reaction of the child's body to taking acetylsalicylic acid.
Causes of hypoglycemia in young girls is a failure to follow a diet. After all, women often sit on low-calorie diets.
Harmful habits (tobacco, alcohol) can also lower the concentration of glucose. And until a person completely refuses alcohol and cigarettes, then it is not always possible to normalize the sugar level even with the help of medical preparations.
Often the causes of hypoglycemia lie in the presence of malignant tumors. After all, neoplasms in the pancreas often lead to the growth of tissues, including beta cells responsible for insulin production.
In diabetics, reduced sugar is found due to an overdose of insulin or other drugs, and on the background of persistent problems with the kidneys. The change of drugs also provokes a jump in the level of glucose.
The following causes of hypoglycemia in diabetes are fasting, excessive exercise, taking drugs, alcohol, and introducing a new sugar reducing agent into therapy.
Moreover, low blood glucose levels can develop if a diabetic further lowers the sugar concentration without adjusting the dose of essential drugs.
Symptomatology and diagnosis
A small indicator of glucose often appears in the morning, immediately after prompting. In this case, for its normalization, it is sufficiently dense to have breakfast.
But sometimes after breakfast or lunch there is a response hypoglycemia. This feature often indicates the development of diabetes.
The main manifestations of low sugar concentrations include:
- rapid pulse and tachycardia;
- rush of heat and tremor in the hands;
- great thirst and hunger;
- headache with diabetes;
Other symptoms of low sugar content are drowsiness, blanching of the skin of the face, legs and hands, apathy and dizziness. Visual disturbances (flies, double vision or a veil on the eyes), heaviness, weakness or numbness in the legs often appear. Also, when hyperglycemia sweat palms, which happens even in the cold.
Manifestations of lowered sugar at night are talking while you sleep, a strong sweat. After awakening, the person feels weak and is constantly irritated by trifles.
Similar symptoms occur due to starvation of the brain. Therefore, if blood sugar is below normal (less than 3.3 mmol / l) then carbohydrates should be eaten quickly.
In the absence of any action, a number of complications can develop. At the initial stage, convulsions, distracted attention, unsteady gait and incoherent speech appear.
After loss of consciousness occurs and there is a likelihood of the development of convulsive syndrome. Diabetics in this condition often fall into a coma. Hypoglycemia often leads to the development of a stroke.
It is worth noting that children are less sensitive to hypoglycemia. But if it is pronounced, then these patients also develop a number of symptoms, which include:
- strong appetite;
- pain in the legs and abdomen;
- desire to rest;
- silence and atypical calm;
- poor acumen;
- sweating of the head.
The diagnosis of hypoglycemia is made on the basis of three factors. These are laboratory tests, history taking, and patient complaints.
To find out the sugar level in the laboratory, a glucose tolerance test is performed. Its essence lies in the fact that the patient fixes the indicators on an empty stomach, and then gives him a sweet solution. After 2 hours, the sugar level is measured again.
You can also find out about the presence of hypo-or hyperglycemia at home. For this purpose, use a blood glucose meter.
Emergency methods to increase the concentration of glucose
If the sugar is not much lower, then you can eliminate this condition yourself. In this case, you need to eat some fast carbohydrates or drink a solution of glucose.
After it is important to measure the indicators after 10 minutes. If during this time the level does not increase, then you should take a little more sweet solution or food and do retesting.
In case of a sharp drop in the sugar level, it is necessary to consume foods with high GI. These include honey, lemonade or juice, refined sugar, caramel and jam.
However, to quickly increase the concentration of glucose, you should not eat fruits, slowly digestible carbohydrates, cakes, chocolate, products with sugar substitutes and ice cream. With the next meal it is also worthwhile to wait until the state is normalized.
But if the level of sugar fell very much, then it is worth calling an ambulance. Before her arrival, you can give the patient a very sweet tea, and in the hospital, he / she will be given glucose solution (40%). In case of loss of consciousness it is impossible to feed or feed the patient, as there is a risk that he will choke or suffocate. It is important to know what should be the emergency care for diabetic coma.
Before the ambulance arrives, it is advisable to lay it on its side, bending the upper leg at the knee. This will not allow the pit to choke on its own tongue.
If you have experience at home, the patient is administered 20 ml of glucose solution, glucagon or adrenaline (0.5 ml).
Nutrition has a significant effect on fluctuations in blood glucose levels. Therefore, patients with an increased risk of developing hyperglycemia should turn to an endocrinologist, who will prescribe a special diet for them.
The diet is selected on the basis of various factors (severity of the condition, age, the presence of associated diseases). However, there are general principles that must be followed by anyone who does not want to have health problems, including low sugar.
The first rule is to increase the amount of intake of slow carbohydrates. These products include wholegrain flour baking, vegetables and various cereals.
Juice, sweets, honey and cookies should be consumed in moderation. And from alcohol, muffin, rich broths, semolina, pasta from soft wheat, animal fats, spices and smoked meats should be abandoned.
It is important to eat fractional, taking food in small portions. Preference should be given to products rich in fiber (potatoes, peas, corn). Such food slows the digestion of sugar derived from complex carbohydrates.
Fruits should be an essential part of the daily menu. But too sweet fruits (banana, melon, strawberries, grapes) should be discarded.
An important value in the diet is given to proteins, the number of which should prevail over carbohydrates. Preference is given to dietary types of meat and fish, namely, rabbit, chicken, turkey, beef, hake and menthu. You can also eat nuts and non-fat dairy products.
Here is an approximate daily diet, adhering to which you can prevent the development of hyperglycemia:
- Breakfast - boiled soft-boiled eggs, unsweetened tea, a slice of whole-wheat bread.
- The first snack is milk (1 stack) or unsweetened fruit.
- Lunch - vegetable salad and soup with low-fat broth or steam fish with vegetables and tea.
- The second snack - herbal decoction and 2 unsweetened fruit or walnuts (up to 50 g).
- Dinner - boiled rabbit meat or chicken with vegetables, tea or chicory.
- 2 hours before bedtime, you can drink 200 ml of kefir (1%).
The video in this article reveals the essence of hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus.