Every year the number of people suffering from diabetes increases significantly. Moreover, if earlier it was detected only in the elderly, then today this disease is also found in young people and in children. And the question of whether diabetes mellitus is inherited, has recently become increasingly relevant. And so it is or not, you now and find out.
Diabetes is 2 types. With diabetes mellitus in the body, a decrease in pancreatic secretion is observed, as a result of which the production of insulin, which is responsible for the breakdown and absorption of glucose in the blood, stops partially or completely. It is for this reason that type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent.
With T2D, the “inner” picture is slightly different. With the development of this disease, the functionality of the pancreas is preserved. She continues to synthesize insulin, but the cells of the body lose sensitivity to it and cannot fully absorb glucose. As a result, it begins to settle in the blood and when taking the analysis, an increase in sugar concentration outside the normal range is noted.
This disease manifests itself with various symptoms.
Among them, the most common are:
- decrease or decrease in body weight;
- constant feeling of hunger;
- dry mouth and thirst;
- wounds and trophic ulcers on the body;
- decreased sensitivity of the limbs;
- high blood pressure.
Considering all these symptoms, many parents suffering from this disease are worried that he will be able to pass on the "inheritance" to their children. But is it? How is diabetes mellitus transmitted from mother to child? What is the probability of transmission of the disease if both parents suffer from it at once? Now you all know.
Hereditary predisposition plays a large role in the development of diabetes, but not the main
Type 1 diabetes and heredity
Speaking of diabetes, it should be said that no one is immune from this disease. The thing is that it can begin to develop for absolutely different reasons and most often it is caused by the following factors:
- pancreatic pathology;
- impaired metabolism;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- smoking and alcohol;
- unhealthy diet;
- frequent stress and lack of sleep;
- various diseases that inhibit the immune system;
- genetic disorders.
On this basis, it should be noted that diabetes mellitus is a disease that can be easily prevented by simply changing the lifestyle and curing existing diseases in a timely manner. However, when it comes to hereditary predisposition, it is quite difficult to prevent the appearance of diabetes.
What is predisposition? In order to understand this, it is necessary to begin to understand some of the nuances of the development of this pathology. SD is passed from one generation to another polygenically. In other words, descendants inherit only signs of the disease, which are based on a whole group of genes. But their effect on the body is so weak that they cannot “provoke the development of diabetes alone”. A disease appears only if, against the background of a hereditary predisposition, a person leads a wrong lifestyle - takes alcohol, smokes, neglects the rules of healthy eating, does not play sports, etc.
Harmful eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle are the main causes of the development of diabetes
It should be noted that in medical practice cases have been repeatedly found when children with diabetes mellitus are born to perfectly healthy parents. In this case, talking about a genetic predisposition to this disease, which is transmitted in 1-2 generations. At the same time, the presence of a child with type 1 diabetes is detected approximately at the age of 7–12 years, which is also caused by harmful eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle (modern children spend a lot of time behind computers and TVs and play little outdoor games).
It should also be noted that the probability of transmitting diabetes from father to children is much higher than from mother. But that's what caused this, the scientists have not been able to explain. Moreover, if only one parent is sick, then the risks of developing diabetes in their child are very small - no more than 5%. But in the event that both parents suffer from this disease at once, then the probability that the disease will be passed on to their future baby is much higher and is already about 25%. However, in this case there are all chances to endure and give birth to a perfectly healthy child. The main thing is to follow all the recommendations of the doctor.
Type 2 diabetes and heredity
Hereditary predisposition and diabetes mellitus are two concepts that have a close relationship with each other. Therefore, many parents are very concerned that if they have this disease, then soon their child will also have it. But it is not so.
Children, like adults, have a tendency to develop diabetes. And in the presence of a genetic predisposition, one should think about the possible appearance of this illness in a child in the future, but in no way an established fact.
It is possible to prevent the development of diabetes in a child, even if his parents together suffer from this disease!
Since diabetes is not only a disease that is inherited, but also a disease that can develop in a person at any age under the influence of the above described negative factors, in order to prevent his development in a child, he simply needs to develop correct eating habits from childhood. and love of sport. If a baby from an early age correctly eats and maintains an active lifestyle, the risks of developing diabetes in it, even if there is a genetic predisposition, will be much lower than in children who spend hours at the computer and constantly use chips and soda.
Speaking directly about type 2 diabetes, it should be noted that it is more often inherited from one generation to another than diabetes. When only one parent suffers from this disease, whether it is the father or the mother, the risk of passing it on to the child is 80% in this case. And if T2DM was diagnosed at once in two parents, then the probability of having a baby with the same pathology is 100%.
But in this case it is necessary to understand that it is a matter of predisposition, and not a fact. And knowing the high risks of diabetes of the second type in a child, it can also be prevented by taking all the necessary measures. It is necessary to limit the baby from the influence of negative factors on him and to monitor his weight, since obesity in most cases is the main impetus for the development of diabetes.
Parents should understand that there are many reasons for the development of this disease and if several negative factors affect the children's body at once, then the likelihood of diabetes in their child is very high, even if they themselves are completely healthy people.
Based on all this, we can draw several conclusions. From childhood, parents should take steps to limit their child from the influence of negative factors. He must be hardened in order to strengthen his immune system and prevent frequent colds, which, by the way, can also cause diabetes.
If there is a genetic predisposition, it is necessary to regularly monitor blood sugar levels in children. This will allow timely identification of the onset of the disease and prevent the development of complications on its background
No less important is control over the child’s weight and activity, since, as mentioned above, overweight and a passive lifestyle increase the likelihood of developing T2DM in a child several times.
Most people who have not yet dealt with a "sweet" disease and do not understand the mechanism of its development in the body, are wondering whether it can be transmitted by a biological fluid, for example, through saliva or blood.
As it has already become clear from the above, diabetes mellitus is a disease that develops as a result of hereditary predisposition. It is most powerful if both parents suffer from this disease. But having a father and a mother for diabetes is not yet a guarantee of its child’s development.
Doctors argue that the presence of genetic predisposition is not a sentence. To prevent the development of the disease in a child, you just need to follow all the doctor's recommendations from an early age.
And the most important thing in this business is proper nutrition. It should be understood that it depends on him 90% of success. The diet of the child should be rich in vitamins and minerals, contain fats and proteins. As for carbohydrates, they are also necessary for the normal functioning of the body, but it should be understood that they are of two types - complex and easily digestible.
Easily digestible carbohydrates are those that are quickly absorbed by the body and are converted into adipose tissue, so it is desirable to minimize their use. Such carbohydrates are contained in chocolate, carbonated drinks, baked goods, cookies, etc.
Proper nutrition reduces the risk of developing diabetes in children 2 times
It is important to develop the right eating habits of the child from birth, limiting it from the use of "harmful" products. After all, if he does not know what a chocolate bar or candy is, then he will not have a craving for them. And besides, these children are much easier to explain why they should not eat them.
In combination with physical activity, the diet gives very good results even in cases where diabetes has already been diagnosed. That is why it is necessary to carry out its prevention from a very early age and it’s good if you and your parents keep to a diet and play sports, since only they can show him how to lead a healthy lifestyle and well!