Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus of any type is related to the main word - insulin. An endocrine disease is deficient in a hormone produced by the pancreas. How to take a standard blood test for insulin resistance? What are the features of the test procedure? By what criteria can you independently decipher the results?
To test for insulin or not?
The solution of the question for potential patients is unambiguous: to pass. For people at risk, this should be done regularly, annually. Their desire to avoid insulin therapy is understandable, but it has been proven that the earlier the pathology of any disease is detected, the more effective is its treatment.
In children and young people, the onset of diabetes occurs quickly and acutely. More often through ketoacidosis (up to 30% of all patients of the 1st type). In critical conditions, the glycemic background is elevated to more than 15 mmol / l. In the blood accumulate toxic substances, products of impaired metabolic reactions.
Hazardous compounds prevent the penetration of glucose into cells, reduce the amount of natural insulin in the body. At the first signs (smell of acetone from the mouth, dry and pale skin) of beginning ketoacidosis, urgent hospitalization and the help of specialists is necessary.
Aged patients who take large doses of glucose-lowering drugs for a long time and do not observe noticeable results of treatment are transferred to insulin therapy. For newly diagnosed patients at risk and experienced diabetics, a special blood test is provided.
The procedure is called glucose tolerance testing (GTT). It allows you to diagnose more than half of diabetics in the veiled stage of the disease. Endocrinologists call this condition prediabetic (latent or latent).
People at risk
It is important to remember that in people with a predisposition to diabetes mellitus, the disease develops, according to official statistics of the WHO (World Health Organization), in 25-45%. The main factor influencing the manifestation of pathology is burdened heredity.
The remaining predecessors roughly evenly divided among themselves the percentage of the likelihood of diabetes:
- diseases that cause lesions of the beta cells of the pancreas (pancreatitis, cancer);
- viral, epidemic infections (hepatitis, smallpox, rubella, flu);
- obesity 2 and 3 degrees;
- systematic or unexpectedly severe stress.
Any of the factors may play a triggering role in the event of a disease.
It has been established that type 1 diabetes, on the maternal line, is less likely to be inherited than on the paternal one. While the disease of the 2nd type in both parents can equally affect the appearance of the pathology in their children. Acquired form of diabetes enhances the imposition of several factors. For example, there is an evidence base of cases in which there are as many chances of a person suffering from obesity and catching the flu as the patient is burdened by heredity.
Latent diabetes and how to detect it
The latent form of endocrine disease can occur for a long time. It is important to establish a violation of glucose tolerance in time by testing for insulin in the blood. This gives a person a chance to take care of themselves, to take measures to regulate the regime and diet. As a result, significantly, and perhaps permanently postpone the diagnosis-sentence.
During pregnancy, the female body and all its tissues experience enormous physiological stress. It is tested for strength and organ of the pancreas.
Modern neonatologists have established a pattern between some pathological signs of a pregnant woman and a newborn, indicating a possible subsequent manifestation of diabetes:
- high water flow;
- gluteal primorye fetus;
- jaundice in the baby.
After the birth of a child, a special genetic analysis is done, which can be used to establish a predisposition to diabetes. To level the factors contributing to the manifestation of the disease, many doctors recommend for people at risk to withdraw from secondary vaccinations.
Identified marker of type 1 diabetes
Glucose Tolerance Test
Insulin is the main hormone that regulates metabolic processes in the human body. To identify its maximum production spend provocation glucose. Before conducting GTT to eliminate distortion of results, the use of glucose-lowering drugs, salicylates, corticosteroids, and estrogens is canceled.
When performing a test it is difficult to take everything into account, including:
- concomitant infections;
- impaired functions of another organ of the endocrine system - the thyroid gland;
- chronic liver disease, kidney.
The patient, as a rule, should be on his usual diet, perform the required daily exercise.
Proper blood donation should be:
- in a calm emotional state;
- in a certain time interval (from 10 to 16 hours).
The WHO documents state that adults are allowed to consume glucose in a dose of 75 g. Subsequently, blood is taken three times over a period of 2 hours. The first time - on an empty stomach.
What does an insulin test show? According to experts, the diagnosis of diabetes "questionable" can be made on the basis of if at least one of the samples exceeds the normal value.
So, the diabetic nature of GTT acquire the following indicators:
- fasting - 6.12 mmol / l;
- after 1 hour - 10.02 mmol / l;
- after 2 hours - 7, 31 mmol / l.
Deciphering blood test on an empty stomach
Other tests and criteria to detect diabetes
The next step in the diagnosis of a potential diabetic should be to determine the average glycemic level over several months. The test is called analysis on glycated or glycated hemoglobin. The rate for it is from 5 to 7 mmol / l.
The third step for the final determination of the actual state of health is the C-peptide analysis. In many leading clinics for hospitalization with suspected diabetes, auxiliary diagnostic criteria are mandatory.
A number of young patients with type 1 disease notes that they developed diabetes during puberty. It was preceded by prolonged hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
There is an established link between the cause of the disease and impaired functions of the immune system. Antibodies appear in the blood, the action of which is directed against the patient's own cells in the body. The pancreatic beta cells are destroyed.
And yet debunked another myth about diabetes. Lovers of cakes, pastries, sweets, their gastronomic tastes can only indirectly lead to endocrinological disease, through obesity. It is not sweets that are harmful, but excessive overeating and lack of physical activity.