Diabetes

Diabetology: a modern section on the study of diabetes

Diabetology is a section of endocrinology. Diabetology is engaged in the study of issues that affect the development of such a disease as diabetes.

Experts in the field of medicine in this area are studying issues related to diabetes:

  1. The causes of the pathological condition.
  2. Methods of treatment of diabetes of various kinds.
  3. Methods for the prevention of diabetes.

Doctors specializing in the study of diabetes, its causes and prevention are called diabetologists. Doctors who study diabetes and its treatment methods are highly skilled professionals in endocrinology.

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that occurs as a result of the development of abnormalities in the functioning of the cells of the pancreas responsible for the production of insulin.

The cause of the disease may also be a decrease in the degree of sensitivity of cell membrane receptors in peripheral insulin-dependent tissues to the hormone insulin.

The most common form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus develops as a result of the emergence of a whole complex of endocrine disorders, which are characterized by absolute or relative insufficiency of insulin in the body. In addition, the development of diabetes can be triggered by the appearance of disorders in all forms of metabolic processes.

Such processes in the human body are:

  • protein metabolism;
  • lipid;
  • water-salt;
  • mineral;
  • carbohydrate.

The most common types of diabetes are the following:

  1. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus of the first type.
  2. Insulin-independent - diabetes of the second type.
  3. Gestational diabetes.

In addition, diabetologists secrete a special condition of the human body called prediabetes. In case of prediabetes in humans, an increase in the level of glucose in the body is detected, which is different from the physiologically determined norm, but not reaching the figure at which a person’s condition can be classified as diabetic.

Symptoms that require consultation of a diabetologist

When abnormalities in the functioning of the body are detected, you should immediately contact a medical institution for advice and appointment, if necessary, for specific treatment.

There are a number of signs, the appearance of which may indicate the development of diabetes in the human body.

If you identify one or more of these symptoms, you should immediately seek the help of a diabetologist.

The main signs that indicate the possible development of a diabetic condition are the following:

  • disorders of the lower extremities;
  • the appearance of increased weakness and general breakdown;
  • the appearance of strong and unquenchable thirst;
  • increased urge to urinate;
  • appearance of increased body fatigue;
  • a significant decrease in the health of the body;
  • change in body weight without the appearance of prerequisites visible for this.

Consultation with a diabetologist and conducting a full examination of the patient's body, which has these symptoms identified, allows you to determine in the early stages of diabetes in the body and promptly appoint therapeutic interventions.

The purpose of such activities is the normalization of the glycemic index in the body and the reduction of the appearance of possible complications with the further progression of the identified type of diabetes.

How is the reception of a diabetologist?

A primary visit to a diabetologist is almost the same as a patient’s visit to a doctor of other specialties.

At the first visit to a diabetologist, the doctor conducts an initial patient interview.

In the process of conducting the initial survey, the doctor finds out a whole range of questions that allow us to make the initial conclusion about the presence or absence of a patient of disturbances in the metabolic processes occurring in the body.

During the survey, the doctor finds out the following questions:

  1. What complaints the patient has on his condition.
  2. Finds out the presence of symptoms characteristic of diabetes mellitus or pre-diabetic condition of the body.
  3. Finds out the time during which the characteristic symptoms appear in the case of their presence in the patient.

After the initial survey, the attending physician measures the glucose content in the patient's body or recommends contacting a specialized clinical laboratory for blood donation for analysis of plasma carbohydrates.

If necessary, additional studies can be assigned to the urine:

  • urine analysis for sugar;
  • urine analysis for the presence of ketone bodies in it.

In addition, daily monitoring of the patient's blood glucose level can be scheduled.

After receiving all the necessary test results and collecting all the necessary information, the diabetologist makes a diagnosis and, if necessary, develops an individual scheme for therapeutic measures.

The choice of the scheme of therapeutic measures depends on the results of the tests and the individual characteristics of the body of a patient suffering from this or that type of diabetes.

Therapeutic measures used to treat diabetes mellitus, are not only in taking medications that lower the level of sugar in blood plasma.

The scheme of therapeutic measures may include adjusting the diet and meal time, schedule and sequence of medication.

Adjustment and dosing of the exercise of physical activity on the patient's body, general adjustment of lifestyle, the mandatory rejection of bad habits, such as smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption.

What does a diabetologist do?

The diabetologist is a specialist who is engaged in the development of treatment regimens and the prevention of diabetes and complications associated with the progression of this disease in the patient's body.

The most important condition for the successful treatment of the disease is the timely detection of the disease and the prevention of its progression to the stages at which the development of complications is possible.

Complications of type 2 and type 1 diabetes have a serious impact on both the work of individual organs and their systems as a whole.

In order to prevent the development of complications accompanying the progression of diabetes mellitus of any type, you should regularly visit the attending diabetes doctor for advice and adjustment of the treatment process.

Timely access to a diabetologist and his regular visit allows you to take appropriate measures in a timely manner to adjust the level of sugars in the body and adjust the metabolic processes.

Regular monitoring by the attending physician allows you to avoid the development of serious diseases in the body associated with diabetes, which affect the functioning of the excretory cardiovascular, nervous and other systems of the body.

About innovations in diabetology can be found by watching the video in this article.

Watch the video: How to Use an Insulin Pen - Mayo Clinic Patient Education (February 2020).

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