Types and types

How to recognize diabetes in pregnant women: the symptoms and signs of pathology

During pregnancy in women, both the metabolism and the general hormonal level changes. The number of the most important indicators in this period includes the level of sugar, since its increase is a threat to the health of the mother and child.

Knowing the symptoms of diabetes in pregnant women, you can minimize the risk of developing the pathological process and possible complications.

Symptoms of diabetes during pregnancy

Diabetes developing during pregnancy is called gestational.

It appears on the background of changes in metabolic processes, hormonal adjustment of the female body.

The pancreas produces a special hormone - insulin, which ensures the uptake of glucose by cells. In pregnant women, its content increases under the action of placental hormones (progesterones).

The pancreas is overloaded and poorly copes with its functions, especially if there are associated diseases (gastritis, pancreatitis, hepatitis of different etiology).When a woman has gestational diabetes, a serious problem is that the bulk of the oxygen is spent on sugar inactivation.

With this process, oxygen deficiency is inevitable, as a result of which fetal hypoxia develops. But the body of a pregnant woman and so is exposed to increased stress, and pathological processes are more active.

There are violations in the vascular system, characterized by pressure drops in the urogenital system, manifested by swelling. In the presence of infection, pyelonephritis and bacteriuria develop. One of the characteristic manifestations of such diabetes is nephropathy, which occurs in late periods.

The symptomatology at pregnant women is shown obviously. Women experience:

  • dryness (especially in the morning) in the mouth and unquenchable thirst;
  • exhausting urination;
  • causeless fatigue;
  • vision problems;
  • itchy skin;
  • frequent desire to eat.
With the manifestation of at least one symptom, you need to tell the doctor about it, pass tests and, if necessary, undergo treatment.

Dry mouth and increased thirst

When the concentration of glucose in the blood serum exceeds the norm, it becomes viscous. The body is trying to somehow compensate for the pathology, and the woman constantly wants to drink.

Dry mouth occurs for the same reason. Drinking daily 3 or more liters of water, the patient temporarily increases the total amount of her blood, as if “diluting” it.

But, if the cause is really diabetes, relief will be only temporary. As a result, it is impossible to quench this thirst. In pregnancy, this situation is especially dangerous.

The kidneys of a woman experience increased loads. If she, besides, drinks a lot of water, there will be edemas, blood pressure will increase.

To eliminate or at least alleviate the unpleasant symptom, you must follow a special diet for pregnant women.

Frequent urination

If a pregnant woman often wants to use the toilet, she is not necessarily a diabetic.

This condition is often considered normal and natural. In the first trimester, the body experiences hormonal changes, in the third - the growing fetus puts pressure on the bladder.

At the same time, the color, consistency and amount of urine remain unchanged, there are no impurities of blood and mucus, and the process of urination is not painful and goes without discomfort.

Therefore, pregnant women are not particularly worried because of frequent visits to the toilet, although this may be a symptom of diabetes. Only analysis establishes an increased level of ketone bodies and sugar.

To stabilize and normalize the condition, it is necessary to correct the diet and limit yourself to excessive consumption of fluids.

Decreased visual acuity

In pregnancy, even healthy women may have vision problems due to changes in homeostasis and increased stress on the walls of blood vessels and nervous tissue. But usually such phenomena are temporary and quite easily corrected.

In diabetes, violations occur quickly and sharply:

  • in the field of view appear spots and "flies";
  • pitting and stitching pains in the eyeballs;
  • focusing is disturbed;
  • intensified painful reaction to bright light;
  • eyes quickly tired.

If such symptoms appear during pregnancy, you should consult an ophthalmologist and an endocrinologist. These specialists will give the necessary recommendations and, if necessary, prescribe a treatment that will help avoid serious complications with vision.

Increased fatigue

In diabetes, the cells of the body almost do not absorb glucose, which leads to their energy depletion and the accumulation of toxic oxidized metabolic products in the body tissues. Therefore, in pregnant women with diabetic syndrome, fatigue and fatigue are often observed.


When pregnant women have problems with the skin, it is a possible sign of diabetes. It is associated with impaired hormonal function of the pancreas, increased load on the liver.

With increasing plasma concentration of glucose, the level of triglycerides (fats responsible for the synthesis of energy) increases.

This is manifested by seborrhea, the appearance of small abscesses and pustules, accompanied by pruritus and peeling. The skin becomes less elastic, there are abrasions and cracks.

Any cosmetic products bring only temporary relief, the only way to get rid of skin problems in pregnant women with diabetes is to reduce the amount of sugar in the blood.

Increased appetite

In diabetes, blood sugar is abundant, but it is not absorbed by the cells.

With this condition, the body is not able to synthesize the required amount of energy, so reflexively there is a constant feeling of hunger - this is one of the symptoms of diabetes in pregnant women.

To normalize carbohydrate metabolism, it is sometimes enough to adjust the diet. The woman also shows light physical exertion.

It must be remembered that overeating leads to excess weight, and this can adversely affect the course of pregnancy.

Other signs of diabetes in pregnant women

Diabetes in pregnant women proceeds with the same symptoms as other patients.

But they may not be so pronounced due to the peculiarities of the female body during this period.

During pregnancy, immunity is reduced, and there is a tendency to infection and exacerbation of hidden chronic diseases. Diabetes only exacerbates this situation and can manifest itself by various signs on the part of many organs and systems.

Therefore, women in this position should be tested for sugar and be tested for glucose tolerance to detect pathology at the earliest stages.

Blood test for sugar during pregnancy

Diabetes is likely miscarriage, preeclampsia, polyhydramnios and genital infections.

The fetus is overweight, which, in combination with placental insufficiency, can provoke birth injuries of the mother and child. Therefore, a woman who knows about the possible complications often cannot decide to become pregnant.

But gestational diabetes develops already in the process of pregnancy (usually after 28 weeks) and is manifested in a violation of carbohydrate metabolism. Identify the pathology allows blood test.

Here are the data on the sugar content at different stages of the disease:

  • first (light) degree - glucose <7.7 mmol / l. For correction, the selection of a diet is recommended;
  • second (medium) degree - glucose <12.7 mmol / l. Diet and insulin administration are needed;
  • last (severe) degree - glucose> 12.7 mmol / l. Ketoacidosis and vascular damage in the retina and kidneys is observed. At this stage, large doses of insulin are given to the woman.
In pregnant women with diabetes, constant monitoring of the glucose level and monitoring by a doctor is necessary.

Features of the gestational form of the disease

Gestational diabetes usually begins after 28 weeks of pregnancy and passes on its own within 1-2 months after giving birth.

That is, the duration of the disease is relatively short. But there remains the risk of his transition to true diabetes.

It is important that at the initial stages the pathology is almost asymptomatic, and women do not pay much attention to it. This complicates the diagnosis and often causes dangerous complications.

Possible consequences for the future mother and child

Diabetes is an insidious disease that causes serious negative changes in the body.

The pathological process affects the health of the mother and the development of the fetus, increases the risk of abortion, the risk of developing the pathology of the unborn child and high mortality after childbirth.

The woman has concomitant chronic diseases, the immunity is reduced, against the background of which additional infection is possible.

Often developing fetopathy:

  • hypertrophic - with normal growth there is a large mass of the fetus, and the placenta increases in size;
  • hypoplastic - Fetal development of the fetus is diagnosed with symptoms of hypoxia and asphyxia.

Related videos

Details about gestational diabetes in pregnant women in the video:

At the first symptoms and suspected diabetes, a pregnant woman should consult a doctor. This ailment is not a sentence. With adequate treatment and compliance with the recommendations of the doctor, pregnancy proceeds without complications and pathologies and ends with the birth of a healthy child.

Watch the video: Diabetes. Clinical Presentation (February 2020).