For the productive treatment of diabetes mellitus, both the first and second types of a single medication is not enough. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the diet, as the disease itself is related to metabolic disorders.
In the case of autoimmune diabetes (type 1), the pancreas produces a small amount of insulin.
With age-related diabetes (type 2), there may be an excess and also a lack of this hormone. Eating some foods in diabetes can reduce or increase the amount of glucose in the blood.
What should be the diet of a diabetic?
In diabetes of any type, the main task of the diet is to establish metabolic processes and control the increase in glucose levels. Foods that contain simple carbohydrates can provoke a jump in glucose.
So that diabetics could easily calculate the sugar content, a concept such as the glycemic index was invented.
The indicator of 100% is glucose in the pure state. The remaining products should be compared with glucose for the content of carbohydrates. For the convenience of patients, all indicators are listed in the table GI.
With the consumption of food in which the sugar content is minimal, the level of glucose in the blood remains the same or rises in insignificant amounts. A food with high GI significantly increases blood glucose.
Therefore, endocrinologists and nutritionists do not recommend eating foods that contain many carbohydrates.
Patients with type 2 diabetes are simply obliged to pay attention to the choice of products. In the initial stages, with mild and moderate severity of the disease, the diet is the main remedy.
To stabilize the normal level of glucose, you can use the low carbohydrate diet number 9.
Insulin-dependent people with type 1 diabetes calculate their menu using bread units. 1 XE is equal to 12 g of carbohydrates. It is this amount of carbohydrates contained in 25 grams of bread.
This calculation makes it possible to clearly calculate the desired dose of the drug and prevent an increase in blood sugar. The amount of carbohydrates consumed per day depends on the weight of the patient and the severity of the disease.
As a rule, an adult needs 15-30 XE. Based on these indicators, you can create the correct daily menu and meals for people suffering from type 1 and type 2 diabetes. More information about what a bread unit can be found on our website.
What food can diabetics eat?
Nutrition for diabetics 1 and the second type should have a low glycemic index, so patients need to choose foods whose GI is less than 50. You should know that the index of a particular product may vary depending on the type of treatment.
For example, crude rice has an index of 50%, and refined rice - 75%. Also, heat treatment increases the GI of vegetables and fruits.
Doctors recommend diabetics to eat food that has been prepared at home. Indeed, in the purchased dishes and convenience foods to correctly calculate the HE and GI is very difficult.
The priority should be raw, unprocessed foods: lean fish, meat, vegetables, herbs and fruits. For a more detailed look at the list, see the table of glycemic indexes and permitted foods.
All consumed food is divided into three groups:
Non-indicative foods for increasing sugar levels:
- green vegetables;
- still mineral water;
- tea and coffee without sugar and without cream.
Foods that increase the level of sugar to a moderate degree:
- savory nuts and fruits;
- cereals (except rice and semolina);
- bread made from wholemeal flour;
- durum macaroni;
- dairy products and milk.
Foods that greatly increase the sugar level:
- pickled and canned vegetables;
- flour, confectionery;
- fresh juices;
- drinks with added sugar;
Regular consumption of products
Food sold in the section for diabetics is not suitable for permanent use. In such food there is no sugar, it contains its substitute - fructose. However, you need to know what the benefits and harms of sugar substitutes exist, and fructose has its own side effects:
- increases cholesterol levels;
- high calorie;
- increased appetite.
What foods are good for diabetes?
Fortunately, the list of permitted power is quite large. But when preparing the menu, it is necessary to take into account the glycemic index of food and its useful qualities.
Subject to such rules, all foods will become a source of essential micronutrients and vitamins to help reduce the destructive effect of the disease.
So, the products, the use of which is recommended by nutritionists:
- Berries. Diabetics are allowed to eat all berries except raspberries. They contain minerals, antioxidants, vitamins and fiber. You can eat both frozen and fresh berries.
- Juices. Fresh juices drink undesirable. It would be better if you add a little fresh juice to the brewed tea, salad, cocktail or porridge.
- Nuts Very useful product, because it is a source of fat. However, you need to eat nuts in small quantities, because they are very high in calories.
- Unsweetened fruit. Green apples, cherries, quince - saturate the body with nutrients and vitamins. Diabetics can actively use citrus fruits (except mandarin). Oranges, limes, lemons - abound in ascorbic acid, which strengthens the immune system. Vitamins and minerals have a beneficial effect on the heart and blood vessels, and fiber slows the absorption of glucose into the blood.
- Natural yoghurts and skimmed milk. These foods are a source of calcium. Vitamin D contained in dairy products, reduces the need for a sick body in sweet food. Fermented milk bacteria normalize the microflora in the intestine and help cleanse the body of toxins.
Vegetables. Most vegetables contain moderate amounts of carbohydrates:
- tomatoes are rich in vitamins E and C, and iron contained in tomatoes contributes to blood formation;
- yam has a low GI, and it is also rich in vitamin A;
- carrot contains retinol, which is very useful for vision;
- in legumes there is fiber and a lot of nutrients that contribute to rapid saturation.
- Spinach, lettuce, cabbage and parsley - contain a lot of useful vitamins and minerals.
Potatoes are preferably baked and better served with the skin.
- Lean fish. The shortage of omega-3 acids is filled by low-fat fish (pollock, hake, tuna, etc.).
- Pasta. You can use only products made from durum wheat.
- Meat. Bird fillet is a storehouse of protein, and veal is a source of zinc, magnesium, iron, and vitamin B.
- Kashi. Healthy food, which contains fiber, vitamins and useful trace elements.
Specific dietary diabetics
For people with diabetes, it is very important to eat food regularly. Nutritionists recommend dividing the daily food intake into 6 receptions. Insulin-dependent patients should be consumed at one time from 2 to 5 XE.
In this case, before lunch, you need to eat the most high-calorie foods. In general, the diet should contain all the necessary substances and be balanced.
It is also useful to combine food with sports. So, you can speed up the metabolism and normalize weight.
In general, diabetics of the first type should carefully calculate the dose of insulin and try not to increase the daily caloric content of products. After all, proper adherence to diet and nutrition will keep glucose levels normal and will not allow disease 1 and 2 of the type to further destroy the body.