Gestational diabetes mellitus (GSD) is a type of this disease that develops in women during pregnancy. For most women in labor, the illness soon disappears, but in order for it not to lead to complications, you need to follow a certain diet. Most often, the patient will find out about the increased blood glucose level in the second half of pregnancy during the glucose tolerance test. This analysis is desirable for all women who are expecting a child, especially for those who are burdened with heredity in diabetes. Elevated blood sugar, simply taken on an empty stomach, is not always determined, and the glucose-tolerant test can help to identify the GDM.
What is dangerous uncontrolled food?
Gestational diabetes can adversely affect the course of pregnancy and childbirth. If the patient eats without any restrictions, the illness can "break up" and lead to the following consequences:
- premature aging of the placenta;
- poor circulation between mother and fetus;
- thickening of the blood of a pregnant woman and the formation of clots in it that can come off and cause thrombosis (blockage of blood vessels);
- a significant increase in body weight of the fetus, which threatens with complications in childbirth;
- delay in the development of an unborn child.
Principles of diet
The daily menu for gestational diabetes should be divided into 6 meals. The principle of fractional nutrition allows you to avoid sudden jumps in blood sugar levels. Moreover, in this mode of eating, a pregnant woman does not feel strong hunger, which is difficult to sustain in such a state. The total caloric intake should not exceed 2000-2500 kcal per day. It is not necessary to underestimate it, since the pregnant woman's body works under increased load, and it needs to receive food in sufficient quantities for energy costs.
Calculate the correct energy value of the diet can only be a doctor. To do this, it takes into account features of the body, body mass index and other individual features of a woman. The diet should prevent weight gain and at the same time not deplete the body. Gaining more than 1 kg of body weight per month in the first trimester, and more than 2 kg per month in the second and third trimesters are considered abnormal. Excess weight creates stress on the entire body and increases the risk of edema, increased pressure and complications from the fetus.
Diet for gestational diabetes is based on the following principles:
- it is strictly forbidden to use semi-finished products and fast food;
- when choosing carbohydrates, one should give preference to their “slow” options, which are spent for a long time and do not lead to stressful changes in blood sugar (they are contained in cereals, vegetables);
- 60 minutes after each meal, you need to measure the meter readings and record them in a special diary;
- The basis of the diet should be fresh vegetables and fruits with a low glycemic index.
In fact, a diet for women with gestational diabetes is diet 9. It helps reduce blood sugar levels with the help of a balanced diet. No pills to reduce the level of glucose in the blood of pregnant women can not be taken. Correction of the condition can be carried out solely due to restrictions on food.
Synthetic sweeteners during pregnancy are contraindicated, as they may adversely affect the development of the fetus
What can eat the future mother, who was diagnosed with gestational diabetes? The list of products and dishes is quite extensive, and with careful planning of the diet for several days in advance, the food can be varied and tasty. In order for the digestive organs to work more smoothly, the total caloric intake of the daily diet can be divided as follows:
- breakfast - 25%;
- second breakfast - 5%;
- lunch - 35%;
- afternoon tea - 10%;
- dinner - 20%;
- late dinner - 5%.
From the meat range can be eaten rabbit, turkey, chicken and lean veal. No more than 1 time per week with a medical diet, you can eat pork, but only the most lean parts. It is better to cook soups in chicken or vegetable broth (when cooking poultry, it is advisable to change the water twice). Low-fat fermented milk products are allowed, but it is better to refuse whole milk. It is too hard to digest and in pregnant women digestive problems may start.
In moderation you can eat the following foods:
- vegetables with low and medium glycemic index;
- nuts and seeds;
- Fish and seafood;
- hard unsalted cheese with a fat content of 20-45%;
The therapeutic diet for GSD does not imply fasting. During pregnancy, it is very dangerous to subject the body to such stress, so it is better to think over food in advance and always have a healthy snack with you just in case. By planning the menu for the day in advance, a woman can avoid bouts of severe hunger and at the same time protect herself from aggravating the disease.
Instead of juices, it is better to eat whole fruits of fruits. They contain fiber and more nutrients than even completely natural sugar-free drinks made from fruit raw materials.
If the pregnant woman between food intake is experiencing severe hunger, then a glass of low-fat kefir can be the best snack for her.
For pregnant women with gestational diabetes, the following foods and dishes should be excluded from the diet:
- white bread made from high-grade flour;
- smoked meat, salted and spicy foods;
- sweeteners and honey;
- vegetables and fruits with a high glycemic index;
- shop sauces, ketchup and mayonnaise.
Due to the fact that in the diet of a pregnant woman there are some limitations, it cannot fully provide the body with vitamins and minerals. To prevent the lack of these substances, you need to take special vitamin complexes for women in the position. There are many varieties of such drugs, so they should be prescribed only by an obstetrician-gynecologist.
When GSD can not eat fatty and fried foods, because such food impairs the work of the pancreas and adversely affects the work of all organs of the digestive system. Heartburn, which even so often occurs during pregnancy even in healthy women, in diabetes can be aggravated due to nutritional errors. Therefore, it is better not to use too sour, spicy and salty foods. For the same reason, pregnant women are not recommended to get involved in black bread (its acidity is rather high).
A low-carb diet that is popular with some doctors and diabetics cannot provide a woman with enough energy and nutrients. In addition, too sharp rejection of even slow, healthy carbohydrates can lead to stress and mood deterioration. Pregnant women should avoid such situations. A low-carb diet can be recommended to some women after giving birth to prevent them from developing complete diabetes, but only a doctor can make such a decision.
Fruits are best eaten in the morning, as they contain relatively high amounts of carbohydrates, and it will be easier for the body to absorb them.
Dinner should be light and consist of cottage cheese, vegetables, boiled fish or seafood. Sugar and any sweets, unfortunately, are completely unacceptable for use with gestational diabetes.
Sample menu for the day
The menu of healthy pregnant women should include 50-55% of complex and simple carbohydrates, while patients with gestational diabetes should reduce this amount of sugars. On average, carbohydrates should be 35-40% of the total food, the amount of protein at the same time should be left the same as for healthy people. Reducing carbohydrates in the diet prevents the risk of a large fetus, cesarean section and generic complications.
A sample menu for the day might look like this:
- breakfast - low-fat cottage cheese, oatmeal on the water, tea without sugar;
- second breakfast - baked apple;
- lunch - boiled turkey fillet, vegetable soup, carrot, tomato and cucumber salad, buckwheat, dried fruit compote without sugar;
- afternoon snack - nuts;
- dinner - baked perch, steamed vegetables, tea without sugar;
- snack before bedtime - a glass of kefir, a slice of whole grain bread.
In the evening, instead of meat, it is better to eat fish, it is much easier to digest and at the same time satiates the body with biologically valuable nutrient compounds. Sugar in any drinks can not be added. It is advisable to plan meals so that the interval between the first and last meal does not exceed 10 hours.