Diabetes complications

What is hypoglycemia and how to avoid it?

The danger of diabetes is the complications that arise when a patient violates the basic rules of behavior recommended for the disease. One of these manifestations is hypoglycemia. This condition is characterized by a drop in the blood glucose level below acceptable values.

What is hypoglycemia?

Glucose is considered one of the main sources of energy in the body. With its low content in the blood develops a life-threatening condition - hypoglycemia. Most often, people with type 1 diabetes are exposed to it, but can also occur with type 2 disease. In some cases, this condition may signal other diseases and health problems.

The concentration of glucose in the blood during hypoglycemia is up to 3.3 mmol / l. At such moments, brain cells begin to experience a shortage of sugar and in the absence of the necessary measures to replenish its reserves may die.

Lack of glucose adversely affects the function of neurons, which leads to impaired coordination of movement, loss of the ability to clearly think and independently control their own actions.

With these symptoms, it is important to immediately begin treatment. Otherwise, hypoglycemic coma may develop, which can even lead to death.

Causes of hypoglycemic state

People with diabetes need to adhere to all rules of behavior within their disease, namely:

  • follow a diet, diet;
  • take synthetic drugs appropriate to the type of diabetes or inject subcutaneously insulin;
  • control sugar.

Ignoring these recommendations can cause the development of dangerous consequences for the patient, including hypoglycemia.

Factors provoking a hypoglycemic state:

  1. Excess in the body of insulin. Most often this occurs in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes with the introduction of the wrong dose of the drug.
  2. Long intervals between snacks, or the lack of necessary body food because of the specifics of work, stay in public places. In this case, a person may inadvertently ignore the first signs of hypoglycemia, as well as be embarrassed in the environment, have a bite to eat, having made a serious mistake.
  3. Drinking alcohol. After drinking intoxicating drinks, the glucose level after a while can dramatically decrease if the intake of alcohol was not accompanied by a snack, including a sufficient amount of carbohydrates.
  4. Not taken into account physical activity. Any training is accompanied by increased consumption of glucose muscle, so the lack of snacks before or after classes leads to a drop in the value of sugar.
  5. Taking certain medications that may impair sensitivity to manifestations of hypoglycemia.
  6. The presence of severe diabetic polyneuropathy, as a result of which nerve cells are affected, is lost sensitivity to hypoglycemia. A person has to check sugar more often with a glucometer in order to avoid a sharp decrease in sugar.
  7. Insufficient drinking regime. In this case, the body begins to intensively expend glucose reserves, causing a decrease in its blood index.

Classification and symptoms of the disease

The hypoglycemic state is classified into species based on clinical manifestations, severity, mechanism of its development and origin.

The main forms of hypoglycemia:

  1. Transient (neonatal). This condition often accompanies newborns and is explained by the absence of glucogenesis at the time of being in the womb. Premature babies with developmental defects or born to mothers with diabetes are more susceptible to manifestations of neonatal hypoglycemia.
  2. Reactive. It is found in obese people when large amounts of insulin are produced in response to excessive carbohydrate intake.
  3. Alcoholic. Occurs in people who abuse alcohol with insufficient nutrition.
  4. Night. Hypoglycemia appears during sleep from 2 to 4 hours, when the body is least in need of insulin. The reason for its development is considered an overdose of a hormone, administered subcutaneously at night.
  5. Alimentary. Manifested after surgery on the digestive tract (gastrointestinal tract) due to impaired glucose absorption in the blood.

From the moment of the first manifestations and to loss of consciousness, a person experiences 3 degrees of hypoglycemia, each of which is accompanied by characteristic symptoms.

Table of symptoms and degrees of hypoglycemia:

PowerCommon causesSymptoms
EasyThe occurrence of this stage of hypoglycemia is most often triggered by various stresses, fright or very serious experiences.A patient at this stage may experience weakness, anxiety, and anxiety for reasons unknown to him, a slight feeling of hunger, tachycardia, an attack of nausea or dizziness.
AverageLack of snack or fixed, according to time, main mealA person has a cold sweat, there is weakness, trembling in the knees and hands, headaches, tinnitus. The consciousness of the patient begins to gradually grow cloudy. Surrounding people become noticeable speech disorder, loss of control over their actions, pallor of the skin.
HeavyIgnoring the symptoms characteristic of the average degree of the syndrome, as well as refusal to eat carbohydratesThe person loses control of the situation and faints. He may experience convulsions, indicating a coma. The patient's body temperature decreases, and the glucose level falls below 2.2 mmol / l.

With uncompensated diabetes mellitus, patients are often in a state of hyperglycemia, when blood sugar levels consistently exceed acceptable values ​​(more than 10 mmol / l). Bringing the indicator back to normal can cause symptoms of "false" hypoglycemia in these people.

The body then takes the usual for healthy people glucose level, which is within 5 mmol / l, for a critically low value. The patient begins to consume carbohydrates and thereby again provokes an increase in glycemia.

It is important for people with diabetes to be able to distinguish the symptoms of real hypoglycemia from false manifestations and to control sugar levels in order to avoid dangerous health effects due to sudden drops and glucose jumps.

First aid

First aid to eliminate the symptoms of hypoglycemia includes 2 stages:

  1. Carbohydrate intake.
  2. Glycemia control until its values ​​are normalized.
It is possible to arrest the symptoms of hypoglycemia at home only in the first two stages of its manifestation. To do this, it is enough to use several bread units (HE).

Each bread unit includes 12 grams of carbohydrates. When blood glucose is less than 3.5 mmol / l, it is best to drink sweet juice or tea. Chocolate or cake in this case will not work, because they contain fat, which is absorbed more slowly.

After a quarter of an hour, you should measure the sugar with a glucometer. If the glucose level was below 3.9 mmol / l, then another 1.5 XE should be consumed, measuring the sugar after 15 minutes.

In the absence of an increase in the index, the undershot should be repeated with the obligatory verification of the indicator of glucose in the blood. Alternate snacking with control measurements of sugar should be up until the value obtained on the meter does not exceed 3.9 mmol / l.

If a person is no longer able to consume carbohydrates on his own and is unconscious, then you need to lay him on one side and call an ambulance. Giving food or drink to people in this state is dangerous, as they may suffocate. Prior to the arrival of the medical team, relatives of the patient can inject him with glucagon solution, which is sold in a special kit in pharmacies. This will help save lives.

Inpatient treatment

Emergency care for a patient who is unconscious or in a coma is to conduct drug therapy in the hospital according to the following scheme:

  1. A solution of glucose (40%) in a volume of 40-60 ml is administered intravenously together with the Glucagon preparation. If the glucose level is still below the norm, then a drip is connected with a 5% solution of the same drug before the patient regains consciousness.
  2. Adrenaline injection is used to restore breathing and heartbeat.
  3. To prevent swelling of the brain, Magnesia is injected.
  4. When a deep coma occurs, 150 mg of hydrocortisone is administered intramuscularly to the patient.

If consciousness does not return to the person after 4 hours after the measures taken, this indicates a high chance of brain edema, which can lead not only to disability, but also to death.

Implications for the body

Frequent bouts of hypoglycemia adversely affect the work of all internal organs.

Main consequences:

  • vascular angiopathy development;
  • increases the risk of heart disease;
  • brain function is impaired;
  • can develop stroke and swelling of the brain;
  • diabetic complications that occur in a patient;
  • comes coma.

Prolonged coma causes brain cell death and can lead to death.

How to prevent a dangerous condition?

To reduce the risk of a pathological condition, you can use preventive measures, which include the following recommendations:

  • know methods of stopping this condition and eliminate its signs;
  • be able to adjust the dosage of insulin in accordance with the planned amount of XE;
  • do not exceed the dose of the hormone;
  • follow the diet and follow the schedule of injections;
  • do not skip the main meals, as well as scheduled snacks;
  • monitor morning blood glucose, as well as the change in glucose after each meal with a glucometer;
  • do not consume alcoholic beverages;
  • always carry pieces of sugar, glucose tablets or simple carbohydrates to stop hypoglycemia at the first manifestations;
  • Be sure to read the instructions for the drugs taken, to know how their components affect the glucose index;
  • make additional snacks before starting physical work or playing sports.

Why blood sugar drops sharply:

A timely snack at the first sign of hypoglycemia will help prevent the onset of a severe form of its manifestation when carbohydrate intake is no longer possible.

A person who is fainting is difficult to help, especially if the people around him do not know about his illness. It is important to understand that avoiding the onset of hypoglycemia is much easier than eliminating its symptoms.

Watch the video: What is hypoglycemia? - DiaBiteSize (February 2020).