In human blood, glucose is always present - an important nutrient. The body constantly has a certain level of glucose, which is involved in many energy processes, which ensures the normal tone of the body.
In many cases, in the absence of diabetes, the person does not monitor their blood glucose levels. A decrease or increase in glucose concentration can be a provocateur for a large number of dangerous diseases that may be irreversible.
A constant level of glucose in the blood is maintained due to the hormone insulin, it is produced by pancreatic cells. If it produces a hormone in small quantities, this leads to a permanent increase in blood glucose.
Symptoms and norms
Often symptoms may be subjective or manifest after a long time.
The body is in great danger if the amount of sugar in the blood is constantly increased.
If the indicator of blood glucose is high enough, then the person feels:
- dry mouth,
- muscle weakness
- reduced vision
- Increased urine output
For adults, the normal glucose indicator in the morning should be no more than 6.0 mmol / l. In the morning, the norm is 3.9-5.5 mmol / liter. 2 hours after meals, the indicator should not exceed 8.1 mmol / liter, but not less than 3.9 mmol / liter.
If a person suspects the presence of diabetes, you should do a study on blood glucose. You need to visit the hospital where the doctor prescribes a referral. Also in the pharmacy you can buy a blood glucose meter for measurements at home. Thus, you can systematically investigate your performance.
The meter can only provide primary results. To confirm your performance, you must undergo a medical examination in the laboratory.
In a person who is prone to such a dangerous ailment as diabetes, the pancreas loses its ability to produce insulin. This is the situation in people with type 1 diabetes, or in the case when the volume of synthesized insulin is too small, which is characteristic of type 2 disease.
Because of this, the level of glucose in the blood in diabetes is always above normal values.
Glucose indicators for different situations
The amount of blood glucose in the morning on an empty stomach should be at least 3.5 mmol / l. When the indicator is in the range of 5.5 - 6.6 mmol / l, then they are talking about the borderline state, which shows glucose tolerance.
If the amount of sugar is from 6.7 mmol / l and more, then doctors should conduct a comprehensive examination for the presence of diabetes of various types. This takes into account features in which the indicator may be lower or higher.
In infants, the glucose content is within 2.8 - 4.4 mmol / l. Pregnant women have physiological insulin resistance, which is why a particular type of diabetes often occurs, which is called gestational. As a rule, an indicator of more than 7.8 mmol / l is recorded in the period of 4-8 months of pregnancy. The condition can be normalized after the birth of the child.
The increase in sugar occurs after:
- food consumption
- strong mental experiences
- intense physical exertion.
For a short time, the indicator may become higher in a pathological condition, for example:
- the pains
- heart attack
- epileptic seizure,
- angina pectoris
A prolonged increase in blood sugar leads to its appearance in urine - glycosuria. In such a situation, most often doctors say about the presence of diabetes. Then follows in a short time to create a treatment regimen and begin therapy. In some diseases, glucose, on the contrary, decreases.
This may be due to liver damage, malfunction of diet and endocrine disorders. If the cells are constantly energetically starving, there is a high risk of CNS lesions.
Therapy and preventive measures
Diabetes mellitus is a disease for which preventive measures are important.
Observing certain rules, you can stop the disease and reduce its severity.
If there is a suspicion of diabetes or the risk of its occurrence is high, then it is important:
- constantly check blood glucose levels
- eliminate cigarettes and alcohol,
- eat 5-6 times a day
- replace animal fats with vegetable fats,
- reduce the amount of carbohydrates to a minimum
- limit sweet foods
- avoid stressful conditions
- to be active.
In treatment it is necessary:
- take hypoglycemic agents: tablets and insulin,
- maintain normal glucose levels
- independently monitor their condition.
Many diabetics are aware of a condition like hyperglycemia. It is the cause of chronic illnesses. To prevent this, the glucose level must be normal under all conditions.
You should not allow a reduced level of sugar, that is, hypoglycemia, since it is fraught with coma.
Elimination of harmful glucose sources
To ensure that glucose levels are always under control, a person should reduce the consumption of refined sugar from all sources.
First of all, we are talking about sugary drinks, which are considered very harmful. Among them:
- sparkling water,
- fruit juices,
- energy drinks,
- coffee and tea with sugar.
Blood sugar levels are high, as are candy, cereal, biscuits and cupcakes. Natural honey quickly acts in a way that improves the performance of sugar.
Any milk and dairy products should be excluded from the diet. It is important to prevent the consumption of products with casein A1, which is produced in cows and is in most yoghurts, cheeses and other similar products. Buying dairy food, you should opt only for organic and raw varieties, which are obtained from animals grown in natural conditions.
Blood Sugar Rates and Sports
As you know, the human body is constantly in need of sugar, but on the other hand it is important that it decays slowly and smoothly, otherwise a certain part is transformed into body fat. Thus, a person must constantly consume foods that slowly disintegrate to glucose.
The glycemic index is a number that determines how much slower the product is transformed to glucose compared to it, whose index is 100. This number is printed on the labels of various foods, next to the substance content and calorie content. The lower the glycemic index, the more difficult and slower the product will be split to glucose.
The highest glycemic index in various fast foods and sweet foods. For example, such an index is 90-95 for rich bread, and for dates it is 103. Diabetics and people who constantly go in for sports should know that it is most useful to eat foods whose glycemic index corresponds to 56-69 units. These are the products:
- boiled potatoes
- black bread,
- grape and cranberry juice.
If the glycemic index is less than 56, it is considered low. This value corresponds to the majority of dairy and meat products, vegetables and fruits. The exact glycemic values are presented in special tables.
In sports nutrition, the formation of a proper diet with regard to glycemic indexes is important.
Before active, but short load, you need to get a large amount of available glucose.
Glucose can not be called the enemy of the human body. It splits into substances that are ideal for providing the body with energy. Sweet foods can not be abused, because glucose is transformed into fat and the weight of a person will increase.
To control the amount of sugar in food, you should constantly monitor the glycemic index. Thanks to his performance, it is quite simple to understand in which situation the use of a sweet product is acceptable. We must not forget to track blood sugar levels. For these purposes, you can use a laser blood glucose meter.
It is necessary to keep the hormones under control. If you systematically monitor hormones, you can know the amount of fat and its location. The doctor may prescribe additional tests to study the level of the hormone testosterone and the hormone estradiol. Hormonal background depends on the proper functioning of the thyroid gland.
How to reduce blood sugar and maintain it at a normal level, the expert will tell in the video in this article.