In type 2 diabetes, the functioning of the whole organism is impaired and the circulatory system suffers first. Often affects the brain, heart, blood vessels and retina. Often, the symptoms of the disease are poorly expressed, so it is detected at a late stage, because of which complications develop, which can result in death.
Malfunctions in metabolic processes, reduced immunity and poor blood supply lead to the fact that a person's eyes suffer. Patients develop blepharitis and conjunctivitis, which are long, difficult and difficult to treat.
Not infrequently conjunctivitis flows into a cataract or glaucoma. And often the symptoms of these diseases are the only visible symptoms of diabetes.
The main symptom that indicates the appearance of vision problems is the appearance of cloudy flocculent spots. So that the rapid development of this state does not lead to blindness, it is important to know what a diabetic cataract is and what methods are used to treat it.
Cataract: causes and clinical picture
The disease develops when the eye lens becomes cloudy. It is a lens that transforms an image, making it susceptible to the central organ of vision in the brain.
Violations in the optical characteristics of the ophthalmic lens can be triggered by various factors. Moreover, in diabetes of the first type, the disease develops much faster than a cataract in type 2 diabetes.
Although the causes of the disease in both cases are similar. So, a diabetic cataract can develop when exposed to the following factors:
- Poor blood supply to the eye, which causes clouding of the lens, and the vessels become fragile.
- The lack of insulin in the blood leads to premature changes in the visual organ, in particular, such consequences are observed in young diabetics who are not dependent on insulin therapy.
Also, with a chronic increase in the concentration of glucose in the blood, its excess is deposited in the form of flakes in the body of the lens. But today, many doctors argue about whether there is actually a relationship between high sugar levels and the development of cataracts in diabetes.
Diabetic clouding of the lens can be distinguished from the age for some features. So, in case of malfunctions in the endocrine system, the symptoms of eye disease develop at a young age. A mature cataract has been forming before the age of 40, while its signs are rapidly aggravated.
The first symptoms are a veil before the eyes, it can appear in patients under 25 years of age. Also, the disease is accompanied by a number of other manifestations:
- the vagueness of objects in bright light;
- image duality;
- image fading;
- change in the pupil, which becomes cloudy and light, which is detected during an examination by an ophthalmologist.
A cataract in diabetes mellitus may manifest as a disorder of NA. Therefore, the patient becomes restless, irritable, due to the lack of opportunities to independently navigate in space.
Diagnosing a cataract in diabetes mellitus is performed by an ophthalmologist. The doctor determines
- level of visual acuity;
- the degree of intraocular pressure;
- identifying the boundaries of view.
Then, with the help of modern medical equipment, the doctor examines the fundus of the eye, retina and lens. Treatment of the disease begins only after an accurate diagnosis.
Cataract therapy is carried out with the elimination of the causes and signs of the main disease - diabetes. For this purpose, insulin therapy can be prescribed, the patient must also follow a special diet, eat dietary meals for diabetics and not forget about physical activity.
Treatment of cataracts without surgery is effective only at the initial stage of the disease, and it is important to take into account the causes of its occurrence. During therapy, eye drops are prescribed, which slow down the development of the pathology, but do not stop it. For example, in diabetic cataracts Taurine (Taufon, Dibikor) and Adapentacene (Quinax) are instilled into the eyes.
If there is a cataract and diabetes, then lenses and glasses will not help, so the surgical method of treatment is applied. The purpose of surgery is cataract removal.
The procedure is done under local anesthesia using a special microscope that magnifies and illuminates the surgical field. If both eyes are affected, then the film is first removed on one organ, and after 3-4 months a second lens is treated.
When there is a cataract treatment should be as gentle as possible. Therefore, phacoemulsification is often used, combined with the implantation of an artificial lens. This procedure makes it possible to eliminate a cataract of any complexity.
How is cataract surgery performed? Using an ultrasound probe, the surgeon crushes a cloudy lens, then aspiration of small particles is done. Through the previously made incision with a special syringe-injector, an implant in the form of a tube is inserted into the eye.
Anesthesia is achieved through anesthetics. The duration of the procedure is up to 25 minutes.
The advantages of phacoemulsification include:
- safety and painlessness;
- minimal likelihood of complications;
- microcut size up to 2.5 mm;
- short duration of the procedure;
- rapid rehabilitation (maximum 30 days).
To restore vision after surgery, apply artificial lenses. IOL is implanted in the eye, replacing the affected organ. This method of treatment is considered the most effective method of correction, which allows you to return high visual acuity. After all, the optical characteristics of an intraocular lens are as close as possible to the properties of the natural lens.
The artificial lens is made of a special transparent material that is perfectly tolerated by the tissues of the visual organ, without provoking the inflammatory process. But the IOL for each patient is selected individually, based on the optical and autonomic features of his eye.
After the operation, for four weeks the eyes should be instilled with non-steroid and steroid means. Often appointed Indokollir and Dexamethasone (2 drops, 4 p. A day). Antibacterial drugs are installed in the same amount for 10 days.
Until the incision heals completely, it is important to carefully monitor hygiene for 14 days in order to prevent the development of the infection process. Therefore, do not touch the eye and wash it under running water. Also during the recovery is not desirable to apply makeup, play sports and go to the sauna.
However, is it possible to have surgery when retinopathy is running, if there are scars on the retina? In this case, surgical treatment is contraindicated. Also phacoemulsification is not carried out with inflammation of the eyes and the formation of vessels on the rainbow irradiation.
The development of eye diseases in diabetics can be prevented. To this end, every six months, patients should attend an oculist who will examine the fundus of the eye, determine the state of the lens and check visual acuity.
To protect the visual organs from excess glucose, eye drops should be used. For example, Katalin or Katakhrom.
The duration of the preventive course is 1 month, after that it is recommended to take a break for 30 days and repeat the session. However, in many cases, life-long use of drugs is necessary.
Avetotsian Forte has a comprehensive tool against diabetes complications. It consists of natural extracts (grape seeds, currants, blueberries), renewing visual function, strengthening the eye apparatus and the vascular system.
Diabetes mellitus and cataract will not be compatible concepts, if you regularly monitor the content of glucose, avoiding its strong jumps. To do this, you need to take special medications that normalize blood sugar and activate metabolism. Such means include multivitamin complexes, which include amino acids, antioxidants and other components that strengthen and cleanse the vascular system.
Vitamin C is an effective remedy for diabetic cataracts. Therefore, the patient should enrich his diet with citrus fruits and bell peppers. Also, this element is present in the berries (black currant, blueberry), which not only improves the visual function, but also preserve the lens.
Not less useful substance for eye health is riboflavin. It can be found in whole grains, yeast and milk. Also, to improve vision, you should drink green tea in abundant quantities. The video in this article tells about cataracts in diabetes.